EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Journal of Science in Sport
Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2015
Contents
Ksenija Radaković, Branka Protić-Gava, Tijana Šćepanović, Mića Radaković, Maja Batez
and Milan Kojić
Postural and nutritional status of students from urban and suburban environmen
3
Nikola Radulović, Ilona Mihajlović, Milena Mikalački, Nebojša Čokorilo and Mila
Vukadinović
Evaluacija stanja uhranjenosti dece mlađeg školskog uzrasta……….…………...……..13
Nevena Miučin and Jelena Šakotić-Kurbalija
Relationship between body satisfaction and psychophysical health………..……………20
Mira Milić, Željko Jonić and Ivana Đurić Mojsilović
Tennis terminology………………………………………………………………………
31
2
EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2015
UDC 796.012.1-057.87:613.12
POSTURAL AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STUDENTS FROM URBAN AND
SUBURBAN ENVIRONMENT
Ksenija Radaković, Branka Protić-Gava, Tijana Šćepanović, Mića Radaković, Maja Batez
and Milan Kojić
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Abstract
Monitoring postural and nutritional status is very useful for sheding light on problems in the
process of growth and development of children. The aim of this study was to determine the
difference in postural status of younger-aged school children of urban and suburban
environment according to their nutrition.
Research sample included 497 male and female pupils from Novi Sad (251) and suburban
environment (246), aged 11 and 12. Postural status was assessed using the method of
somatoscopy and nutrition level with BMI calculator. The relation between the category of
nutrition and the incidence of postural disorders was tested using a chi-square test at the
significance level of p≤0.05.
The results show a statisticaly significant difference in pupils in terms of sagittal spine plane,
chest and feet according to their nutritional status. Lordotic bad posture (p=0.008), right
lumbar scoliosis (p=0.007), high arch foot (p=0.043) and flat feet (p=0.007) were the most
frequent postural disorders in the normal weight pupils. The incidence of kypholordotic
posture
(p=0.005) and flat-chest
(p=0.002) was significantly higher among pupils from
suburban environment. The incidence of kypholordotic posture (p=0.012) was significantly
higher in over-nourished pupils from the suburban environment.
Postural disorders and nutritional abnormalities significantly increase in children of the urban
and suburban environment. Therefore, it is necessary to provide adequate conditions and
include them in an organized physical exercise in order to prevent the occurrence of postural
disorders and disorders of the nutritional status.
Key words: postural disorders, nutritional status, elementary school, urban and suburban
environment.
Introduction
Monitoring nutritional status represents a manifold useful activity because it
indicates the adequacy of the process of growth and development of children, helps in
understanding the current, and may serve as a prognostic factor for their future health.
Nutritional status of children can be evaluated based on clinical examination, laboratory
procedures and anthropometric measurements (Zdravkovic, 2001). Disorders of nutritional
3
status go in two directions: on one side is malnutrition, which represents a personal,
individual and general social problem of economically underdeveloped world countries, and
on the other is obesity, which is becoming a growing social-health problem of the modern
world (Markovic et al., 2008).
Unhealthy diet and lack of physical activity represent one of the main causes of
certain diseases and postural disorders (World Health Organization, 2002). Based on this
report for 2001, the World Health Organization adopted the act on the Global strategy on
healthy diet, physical activity and health
(World Health Organization,
2004), which
emphasizes the importance of adopting the habit of regular physical activity as early as the
childhood age. Unfortunately, the adoption of bad habits is already evident in children of
school age. Hypokinesia first leads to the weakening of the energy exchange, then the basic
physiological system and locomotor apparatus of a growing organism. The consequence of
the aforementioned causes is the occurence of bad posture, which, not timely corrected,
becomes a deformity. Postural disorders of the locomotor system can occur at any age,
although there are certain periods in which the organism is more susceptible. These are the
periods in which children are especially vulnerable, such as the period of starting school, so
one should be extremely cautious when participating in their upbringing (Protic-Gava &
Romanov, 2008).
The prevalence of obesity over the past two decades has been growing, both in the
smaller and industrially developed countries (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
2012). Namely, the number of obese children and adolescents has tripled in the last three
decades. Health problems caused by obesity during childhood can cause social and
psychological problems that can worsen during adulthood (Dean & Flett, 2002). Therefore,
the primary task is to discover bad posture and deformity in the early stages, and do
everything to prevent its further development (Gojkovic, 2011).
The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency of postural disorders among
primary school pupils in Novi Sad and the suburban areas according to the category of their
nutritional status.
Methods
The sample of respondents included 251 pupils from primary schools in Novi Sad (PS
"First Vojvodina Brigade", PS "Zarko Zrenjanin" and PS "Petefi Sandor") and 246 pupils
from suburban primary schools (PS "Miroslav Antic" Futog, PS "Sveti Sava'' Rumenka, and
PS "Djura Jaksic" Kac), aged 11 and 12. The pupils were divided into subsamples - urban and
suburban areas, and by gender - male respondents (270) and female respondents (227).
To determine the postural status we used the modified method of Napoleon Wolanski
according to Radisavljevic, which means observing the body segments in the sagittal and
frontal plane (Protic-Gava & Scepanovic, 2012).
Posture of the individual body segments was evaluated by the following assessments:
zero (0) - normal physiological status, one (1) - less deviation from normal physiological
status, two (2) - larger deviation from the normal physiological status (Radosavljevic, 2001).
4
While monitoring the posture of the body segments in order to determine the postural
status, the respondents took a natural upright position, with the view directed forward, with
arms relaxed beside the body. The respondents were minimally dressed and barefoot. The
observation was carried out from a distance of 2-3 meters from the lateral, rear and front side
(Sabo, 2006).
The nutrition status of the respondents was identified by the body mass index (BMI),
for which it was necessary to measure the body height in centimeters (converted to meters)
and body weight in kilograms. Body mass index was calculated as the ratio of body weight in
kg square body height in meters - BMI = BW/BH2 - kg/m2 (Medved, 1987), using the
criteria proposed by the World Health Organization (Ogden et al., 2002). Values below 5
percentile suggested malnutrition, values between 5 and 85 percentiles - normal nutrition,
values above 95 percentiles - overweight.
The obtained results were processed in SPSS version
20. For determining the
differences in postural status of pupils according to the category of nutrition, we used the
nonparametric method of chi-square test.
5
Results
Tables 1 and 2 show the numerical and percentage distribution of postural disorders
of the spine, chest and lower extremities in the total sample of respondents.
Table 1. Numerical and percentage distribution of postural spinal disorders in the total sample
of respondents
Assessments of postural disorders
Extremely bad
Good posture (0)
Bad posture (1)
Total
posture (2)
Postural
diorders
Number
%
Number
%
Number
%
Number
%
Kyphosis
401
80.7%
90
18.1%
6
1.2%
497
100%
Lordosis
378
76.1%
101
20.3%
18
3.6%
497
100%
Kypho-lordosis
426
85.7%
60
12.1%
11
2.2%
497
100%
Flat back
447
89.9%
46
9.3%
4
0.8%
497
100%
Winged
165
33.2%
263
52.9%
69
13.9%
497
100%
scapulae
Left
chest
438
88.1%
57
11.5%
2
0.4%
497
100%
scoliosis
Right
chest
443
89.1%
51
10.3%
3
0.6%
497
100%
scoliosis
Left
lumbar
485
97.6%
12
2.4%
0
0.0%
497
100%
scoliosis
Right lumbar
486
97.8%
11
2.2%
0
0.0%
497
100%
scoliosis
Left
chest-
493
99.2%
4
0.8%
0
0.0%
497
100%
lumbar scoliosis
Right
chest-
484
97.4%
13
2.6%
0
0.0%
497
100%
lumbar scoliosis
Compensatory
489
98.4%
8
1.6%
0
0.0%
497
100%
scoliosis L/R
Compensatory
486
97.8%
10
2.0%
1
0.2%
497
100%
scoliosis L/R
6
Tabela 2. Numerical and percentage prevalence of postural disorders of chest and lower
extremities in the total sample of respondents
Assessments of postural disorders
Extremely bad
Good posture (0)
Bad posture (1)
Total
Postural
posture (2)
disorders
Numbe
Numbe
Numbe
Numbe
r
%
r
%
r
%
r
%
Concave chest
86.3
12.7
100
429
%
63
%
5
1.0%
497
%
Protruding
93.2
100
chest
463
%
31
6.2%
3
0.6%
497
%
Flat chest
93.2
100
463
%
26
5.2%
8
1.6%
497
%
„X“ legs
54.7
37.8
100
272
%
188
%
37
7.4%
497
%
„O“ legs
92.0
100
457
%
36
7.2%
4
0.8%
497
%
Leg
97.6
100
hyperexstensio
485
12
2.4%
0
0.0%
497
%
%
n
Flat foot
27.4
53.1
19.5
100
136
%
264
%
97
%
497
%
Concave foot
98.6
100
490
%
3
0.6%
4
0.8%
497
%
Chart
1 shows the percentage prevalence of nutritional status of the total sample of
respondents.
Chart
1. The percentage prevalence of nutrition categories of the total number of
respondents
10,9 %
6,6 %
15,9 %
Malnourish
ed
66,6 %
7
Table 4. Numerical and percentage prevalence of nutrition categories of the respondents in
urban and suburban areas
Area
Total
Urban
Suburban
Nutrition status
% by
% u by
% by
% by
% by
% by
N
N
N
ITM
area
ITM
area
ITM
area
Malnuurishment
16
48.5%
6.4%
17
51.5%
6.9%
33
100%
6.6%
Normal
176
53.2%
70.1%
155
46.8%
63%
331
100%
66.6%
nourishment
Over-
42
55.7%
16.7%
37
46.8%
15%
79
100%
15.9%
nourishment
Obesity
17
31.5%
6.8%
37
68.5%
15%
54
100%
10.9%
Total
251
50.5%
100%
246
49.5%
100%
497
100%
100%
χ2=9.037
df=3
p=0.029
The research results show statistically significant differences in postural status between urban
and suburban respondents only in the categories of normal and over-nourished respondents.
In normal weight respondents (Table 4), statistically significant differences were present in
the sagittal plane
(lordosis, kypho-lordosis and flat chest), frontal plane
(right lumbar
scoliosis), and feet (flat and concave foot). In over-nourished respondents the differences are
manifested only in kypho-lordosis (Table 5).
Table 5. Numerical and percentage prevalence and difference in postural status of
the
respondents in urban and suburban areas according to normal nourishment
Normal nourishment
Urban area
Suburban area
Good
Bad
Extremely
Good
Bad
Extremely
Postural
posture
posture
bad
posture
posture
bad
χ2
p
disorders
number
number
posture
number
number
posture
(%)
(%)
number
(%)
(%)
number
(%)
(%)
134
41
1
135
17
3
Lordosis
χ2=9.641
p=0.008
(76.1%)
(23.3%)
(0.6%)
(87.1%)
(11%)
(1.9%)
Kypho
-
164
11
1
126
27
2
χ2=10.760
p=0.005
lordosis
(93.2%)
(6.2%)
(0.6%)
(81.3%)
(17.4%)
(1.3%)
Right
168
8
0
155
0
0
lumbar
χ2=7.220
p=0.007
(95.5%)
(4.5%)
(0.0%)
(100%)
(0.0%)
(0.0%)
scoliosis
170
6
0
134
16
5
Flat chest
χ2=12.527
p=0.002
(96.6%)
(3.4)
(0.0%)
(86.5%)
(10.3%)
(3.2%)
40
101
35
59
76
20
Flat foot
χ2=9.976
p=0.007
(22.7%)
(57.4%)
(19.9%)
(38.1%)
(49%)
(12.9%)
Concave
169
3
4
155
0
0
χ2=6.298
p=0.043
foot
(96.7%)
(1.7%)
(2.3%)
(100%)
(0.0%)
(0.0%)
8
Table 6. Numerical and percentage prevalence and difference in postural status of the
respondents in urban and suburban areas according to over-nourishment
Over-nourishment
Urban area
Suburban area
Good
Bad
Extrem
Good
Bad
Extreme
Postural
p
posture
posture
ely bad
posture
posture
ly
bad
χ2
disorders
number
number
posture
number
number
posture
(%)
(%)
number
(%)
(%)
number
(%)
(%)
39
25
9
Kypho
-
3
0
3
(92.9%
(67.6%
(24.3%
χ2=8.781
0.012
lordosis
(7.1%)
(0.0%)
(8.1%)
)
)
)
Disscusion
The study was conducted in order to analyze the frequency of postural disorders
among primary school pupils of Novi Sad and suburbs according to the category of their
nutritional status.
Number of school-aged children with postural and nutritional disorders is increasing,
which can result in serious problems if not removed in time. The nutritional status of children
and young people is the subject of interest of many researchers (Freedman et al., 2007).
Postural and nutritional disorders of children carry a risk of various health problems (Stanisic
et al.,
2005). A large percentage of children with postural and nutritional disorders is
confirmed by the results of this study, where over 30% of respondents have a nutritional
disorder, and over 50% of children have some of the postural disorders.
Relations between anthropological characteristics and postural status suggest that
obese children have more postural disorders, especially of the feet, overweight and obese
children have in time lower motor development, and have shown that 12-year old children,
with a pronounced longitudinal dimensionality, are more susceptible to the spinal
deformities, and with more subcutaneous fat tissue and circular dimensionality is more
susceptible to foot deformity - flat foot (Djokic & Stojanovic, 2010).
Compared with children from urban areas, it is assumed that children from suburban
and rural areas are deprived of many types of entertainment, and that their daily motor
activity is significantly more intensive and more efficient. Daily chores of rural school
children should require physical activity throughout the day, so their physical status, as a rule,
has less deviations from normal. Research conducted on a sample of children from urban and
rural schools point to dramatically lower percentage of postural disorders in children from
rural areas, and flat foot is a postural disorder rarely seen in children from rural areas
(Zivkovic & Karaleic, 1996).
Based on these results it can be concluded that the results of our study do not match
the aforementioned study because the results show that children from suburban area have
equal percentage of postural disorders compared to their peers in urban areas, and in some
9
segments even higher percentage of postural disorders, such as kypho-lordosis, flat chest and
"X" leg, whereas the respondents from urban areas have better posture of these segments.
Research and evaluation of nutrition and posture status of respondents aged 11 to 12,
shows a statistically significant difference in the aggregate assessment of posture in the
respondents according to the BMI. Excellent (14.4%), very good (23.2%) and good posture
(60%) of the body was found in the respondents in the category of normal nutritional status
(Protic-Gava, Scepanovic, & Batez, 2015).
Children need to actively engage in physical activity, as early as possible in order to
work on the prevention and elimination of obesity, malnutrition and postural disorders
(Demesi & Mikov, 2012). Research shows that children with better motor skills have less or
no postural disorders (Madic, 2006).
The American Heart Association and the American College of Sports Medicine
recommend that children and young people should participate in 60-minute physical activity
of moderate intensity on a daily basis in order to achieve positive health effects (Siljak,
2008).
This study, which was conducted in order to analyze the postural status of urban and
suburban pupils, and detect differences according to their nutritional status, was based on the
assumption that the respondents from suburban areas would have less postural and nutritional
disorders (Protic-Gava & Krneta, 2010). However, the respondents from urban and suburban
areas had the same percentage of postural disorders in certain segments, spine, while in some
segments the respondents from suburban areas had poorer nutritional status (more obese
respondents).
Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that statistically significant
differences between the respondents from urban and suburban areas exist only in certain
segments of the spine and feet in the category of normal and over-nourished pupils. There
were no statistically significant differences in postural status in malnourished and obese
respondents. The category of normal nourished respondents revealed statistically significant
differences in lordotic poor posture and flat feet in favor of the respondents from suburban
areas. Postural disorders of kypho-lordosis and a flat chest were found in more respondents
from suburban areas. In the category of over-nourished respondents, a statistically significant
difference between urban and suburban respondents was found only in the postural disorder
of kypho-lordosis in favor of the respondents from urban areas.
According to these results it can be concluded that more attention should be paid to
children from suburban and rural areas and provide them with equal conditions for physical
activity and sport as children from urban areas have. This would avoid increasing postural
nutritional disorders in children from less urban areas.
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Stanisic, S., Djukic, V., Cantric, G., & Cimbaljevic, T. (2005). The nutritional status of
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EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2015
UDC 796.012.1-053.5:613.955
EVALUATION OF THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF YOUNGER SCHOOL
CHILDREN
Nikola Radulović, Ilona Mihajlović, Milena Mikalački, Nebojša Čokorilo and
Mila Vukadinović1
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of younger school children. It
included 325 respondents, 196 of which were boys and 129 girls aged 7-11, from the
elementary schools in Novi Pazar. Body height and weight were measured in February 2014,
based on which the body mass index was calculated. Harrison‘s categorization was used for
the evaluation of the degree of nutritional status of the respondents. Data were analyzed by
multivariate analysis of variance. The research results show that there is a statistically
significant difference in the nutritional status between boys and girls of younger school age (p
≤ .05), i.e. 18.61% of girls and only 12.75% of boys were overweight. The category of lean
respondents included 35.72% boys and 24.03% girls. Considering the variables of body
weight and body mass index, there were statistically significant difference between the boys
and girls (p = .00). The girls had higher numerical values of body mass (30.10kg) than boys
(28.07kg), and at the variable of body fat index, it was also observed that girls (21.63kg/m2)
recorded higher values than boys (19.97kg/m2). The conclusion is that girls of younger
school age have a higher degree of nutrition, higher body weight and body mass index than
boys.
Key words: Body mass index, body waight, Harisson categorization.
Introduction
The nutritional status has a significant impact on the physical and physiological
characteristics, functional capacity, biochemical composition, health condition, and
represents the contentment of an organism with nutrient and protective substances.
The evaluation of growth and development is not only an indicator of health and
nutritional status of children, but also indirectly gives an insight into the quality of life of the
entire population of a certain area.
13
It is well known that children who have the conditions for proper physical growth
freely develop their cognitive functions, functional abilities and the immune system. In 1995,
it was estimated that in developing countries, mortality was associated with severe
malnutrition in 6.3 million, i.e. 54% of children (WHO, 2006).
Anthropometric indicators can be classified by their application, which includes the
following: identification of a person or population at risk, then the selection of individuals
and populations for intervention, evaluation of the effects of changes in nutritional status,
health and socio-economic impacts, including the intervention of the exclusion of persons
with high-risk treatments for the estimation of achieving the recommended standards (WHO
Expert Committee, 1995).
The choice and selection of anthropometric indicators in the evaluation of the
nutritional status of children depends on the aforementioned objectives, as well as their
sensitivity and specificity. Numerous tests of nutritional status of children that are
implemented in various world countries, unfortunately, are not compatible due to the use of
non-standardized criteria, methodology and reference values.
In order to monitor and compare the growth and development, which is the basic
objective of the evaluation of these parameters, the populations therefore apply the
international reference values of the National Center for Health Statistics / World Health
Organization (NCHSIWHO), which were made 70 years ago, based on the data of healthy
and normally nourished children in the United States. The World Health Organization
adopted these standards for the international application (WHO Working Group, 1986). For
the standardized analysis and uniform processing of the data on growth, development and
nutritional status of children, the World Health Organization prepared the "ANTRO"
software, which was distributed to a number of countries and is used for the comparison of
data on a global level. This program would be excellent in the comparison and evaluation of
the results of the nutritional status of children from this area with other parts of the world and
Europe (WHO Working Group, 1986).
Within the evaluation of data from the global world base of growth and development
of children at the population level, typically used threshold values are <-2 SD for the
classification of low body weight for certain age, low body height and low body weight for
the height as moderate malnutrition, and <-3 SD as severe malnutrition. Treshold value of
>+2 SD classifies large body weight for a given height as obesity in children (WHO Expert
Committee, 1995).
Previous evaluation of nutritional status of children contributed to the assessment of
the importance of determining the prevalence interval in order to assess the severity of
malnutrition and the decision to undertake an intervention population program. (Gibney,
Vorester & Kok, 2002).
Obesity is a chronic disease, which is manifested by excessive accumulation of body
fat and increased body weight (Gibney, Vorester & Kok, 2002). Whether a person is obese or
not, can be today determined on site by measuring their actual weight and entering data into a
computer. Obesity is one of the leading health problems of people around the world, both in
developed countries and countries in transition. The prevalence of obesity has increased
significantly in the last 20 years, and the present tendency of further increase reaches global
14
epidemic proportions. According to the World Health Organization, more than one billion
inhabitants of the earth are overweight, 300 million of which are obese (WHO, 2005).
Obesity is generally defined as an excessive accumulation of body fat, which is in clinical
practice commonly expressed through the body mass index - BMI, or using other methods
(Tsigosm et al., 2008). The causes of obesity are manifold. The most important ones are
considered to be genetic and metabolic factors. Those are also the unhealthy lifestyle of
modern people, with a diet that is inappropriate for the body needs (nutrition with foods of
high caloric value, fast food, oversized portions, emotional overeating). The explanation is
found in the sociocultural, psychological and neuroendocrine factors (high cortisol levels,
lower levels of thyroid hormones, polycystic ovaries, growth hormone deficiency, etc.).
However, the main risk factors for obesity are: genetic 5-70%; too high intake of calories
and/or bad combination of foods (free carbohydrates combined with concentrated fat or
concentrated protein); insufficient physical activity (70%); social factors - flour, sugar and fat
are cheep foods, and fruits and vegetables more expensive (and have fewer calories and tend
to saturate); cultural factors - the cult of fatty foods, other factors - individual susceptibility,
smoking cessation, alcohol, certain medications, pregnancy, menopause, pre-school age,
adolescence (Eveleth, & Tanner, 1990).
Obesity is generally becoming an increasingly important public health problem, and
resolving the issue of obesity in children needs special attention, because research suggests
that most people who were overweight in childhood have problems with obesity in adulthood.
Thus, Power, Lake & Cole (1997) estimated for children who were obese at the age of 7
(BMI>95th percentile), 43% of those girls and 63% of boys remain obese in their thirties. In
Serbia, excessive body weight is reported in
54% of the population, with the highest
prevalence in Vojvodina, where 35.5% of the population is overweight, and 23% of the
population is obese (Grujic, Martinov-Cvejin, Ac-Nikolic and Niciforovic-Surkovic, 2005).
Given the increasing prevalence of obese children, the study was aimed at determining the
nutritional status of young school children from Novi Pazar.
Method
The survey was conducted on a sample of (n=325) of respondents derived from
primary school age children, male (n=196) and female (n=129) in the municipality of Novi
Pazar. The children attended the primary schools "Bratstvo", "Jovan Jovanović Zmaj", "Rifat
Burdzevic Trso", "Vuk Karadzic" and "Stefan Nemanja". They were of different social status,
age 7-11.
Anthropometric characteristics that represented the variables in the study were
measured for the purposes of this research:
1) Body height and
2) Body weight, based on which
3) Body mass index, was calculated.
15
The evaluation of anthropometric characteristics included the measurement of:
1) Anthropometer after Martin - Body height (cm)
2) Scale - Body weight (kg) with the standardized, calibrated tools and instruments, in
line with the IBP for each measure, and based on these two dimensions
3) Body mass index (kg/m2) was calculated according to the following formula:
The categorization of the degree of nutritional status of respondents was done using
Harrison categorization stated by Kristiforovic-Ilic (2004) for a BMI (body mass index).
Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0 for Windows (SPSS, INC,
Chicago, IL). All results were expressed in arithmetic means (AM) ± standard deviation
(SD). The multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the difference between the
respondents in the whole system of variables and individually in the variables. Statistical
significance was set at p≤0.05.
Results
The analysis of descriptive statistics (Table 1) indicates the homogeneity of male and
female subsamples only in the variable of body height. Other variables (body weight and
BMI) observed an increased variability of the results (CV>16%).
Comparing the two subsamples (girls and boys of younger school age), it can be noted
that, according to BMI, both had an average normal volume of nutritional status (18.5-24.9
kg/m2).According to the multivariate analysis, there were significant differences in the
nutritional status of boys and girls of younger school age (p = .00) with the values of the
Wilks’s F test of 24.50. Individual analysis showed statistically significant differences in the
variables of body weight (p = .00) and BMI (p = .00) in favor of the girls.
Table 1. Descriptive statistics of variables and differences between the groups
Variable
Gender
AM
SD
CV (%)
f
p
M
1287.21
64.28
4.99
Body height (mm)
.30
.58
F
1283.77
66.23
5.16
M
28.07
5.01
17.85
Body weight (kg)
12.89
.00
F
30.10
4.93
16.38
M
19.97
3.64
18.22
Body mass index (kg/m2)
15.03
.00
F
21.63
3.94
18.21
F = 24.50 P=.00
Legend: AS - arithmetic mean; SD - standard deviation; CV - coefficient of variation; f - f univariate f test; p -
level of statistical significance of the f test; F - multivariate Wilks’s F test; P - statistical significance of
multivariate F test
In order to facilitate the transparency of the results in the index of nutrition, we
conducted the distribution of body mass index by gender, considering three classifications:
underweight, normal weight and overweight.
16
Table 2. Distribution of BMI by gender, according to Harisson’s categorization
(Kristiforovic-Ilic, 2004)
Boys
Girls
Norms
Total
(N=196)
(N=129)
Percentil
n
% n
% n
%
<30 (<18.5 kg/m2) underweight
70
35.72
31
24.03
101
31.08
30-85 (18.5-24.9 kg/m2) normal
101
51.53
74
57.36
175
53.84
>85 (>25 kg/m2) overweight
25
12.75
24
18.61
49
15.08
Total
196
100
129
100
325
100
The results in Table 2 show a high percentage of children with too low body weight,
malnutrition (35.72% of boys and 24.03% of girls, which in the aggregate amount to 101
respondents). Normal body weight was present in a total of 175 respondents (101 boys and 74
girls), while 25 boys and 24 girls were overweight which is 15.08% in the total. The review
of the results showed a large number of malnourished children.
Discussion
In the total sample of 325 respondents, the differences in the nutritional status of children of
young school age were examined. The research revealed that the number of malnourished
children was extremely high to the total sample (31.08%), while the number of overweight
children was 15.08%. Normal level of nutrition was present in 53.84%. It is obvious that the
overall prevalence of obesity among the examined children in this population of 15.08% is
still considerably lower than the prevalence of obesity in Western European countries and the
United States (Yajnik, 2000).
Greater variability of the results in the variable for assessing obesity is a consequence
of the uneven development of children’s body. It is well known that body weight is not
affected only by genetic factors, but much more by socio-economic ones, lifestyle and level
of physical activity. Both analyzed subsamples reported a well-balanced diet which was in
line with the energy needs of young school children and adequate level of physical activity of
children of different gender.
Overall prevalence of malnutrition in the examined children is 31.08%. In the
attempt to compare the observed prevalence of malnutrition in the examined children with the
test results of other studies, we found very scarce data in the literature. Those data were
almost twice higher than in the research by Markovic, Igrutinovic, Kostic and Vuletic (2008)
whose percentage of such children was 17.7% on the territory of Sumadija. It did not surprise
us to a great extent, due to the fact that most authors, who studied the issue of the nutritional
status of children focusing on the phenomenon of obesity, originated from socio-
economically developed countries (Yajnik, 2000).
17
The use of the appropriate formula for the evaluation of nutritional status quickly
and accurately provided the information on the nutritional status of children from the district
of Novi Pazar. The results showed varying degrees of nutritional status of respondents of
sexually dimorphic groups. In the development of children and the degree of their nutrition
biological, psychological and sociological
(environmental factors) factors are important,
especially cultural factors that can have a profound influence on these results.
In all segments of the methodics of teaching physical education, evaluation has been
recognized as a useful method that allows a unique opportunity to improve the classroom
work with children (Koplan, Liverman & Kraak, 2004). With this study, we realized that with
the application of evaluation, using a statistical package, we can quickly calculate the
parameters of nutritional status.
Based on the above, it can be concluded that the results of this study have indicated
the obvious existence of the problem of thinness in male and female children in the detection
of school children. The percentage of overweight children is small, but it cannot be expected
that such trend would be kept with the development and growth of the body at later age.
Preventive measures in the fight against the thinness of children should include the increase
of physical activity, increased energy intake, changes of factors influencing too low body
weight and obesity, while originating from environmental and educational work with parents.
Parents, teachers, head teachers and other professionals are required to provide sufficiently
encouraging environment for proper growth and development of each child, for future active
and healthy lifestyle, which includes high-quality and adequate intake of healthy and
beneficial ingredients. The limitation of the study was that the questionnaire on the
occupation of a parent or guardian was not parallelly introduced in order to accurately
determine the association between socio-economic status and childhood malnutrition. Given
that the results of the treatment of severe forms of the nutrition disorder, especially in obesity
and thinness, are generally unsatisfactory, most authors agree that emphasis should be placed
on the prevention of eating disorders
(Bibbins-Domingo, Coxson, Pletcher, Lightwood,
Goldmanetall, 2007).
References
Bibbins-Domingo, K., Coxson, P., Pletcher, M.J., Lightwood, J., Goldman, L., et all.
(2004). Adolescent overweight and future adult coronary heart disease. NEJM, 357, 2371-
2379.
Eveleth, P.B. & Tanner, J.M. (1990). Worldwide variations in human growth (pp. 3-
90). 2 edition. Cambrige: Cambrige University Press.
Gibney, M. J., Vorester, H. H., Kok, F. J. (2002). Introduction to human nutrition (pp.
125-224). Oxford: Blackwell Scinence Ltd.
Grujic, V., Martinov-Cvejin, M., Ac-Nikolic, E., Niciforovic-Surkovic, O. (2005).
Epidemiology of obesity in adult population of Vojvodina. Medical overview; LVIII (5-6),
292-295.
Koplan, J.P., Liverman, C.T., Kraak, V.A., eds. (2004). Preventing childhood obesity:
Health in the balance. Committee on Prevention of obesity in children and Youth.
Washington DC, Institute of Medicine.
18
Kristoforovic-Ilic, M. (2004). Hygiene-handbook with practicum. Novi Sad: Faculty
of Medicine Novi Sad.
Markovic, S., Igrutinovic, Z., Kostic, G. and Vuletic, B. (2008). Nutritional status and
possible factors of etiopathogenesis of obesity in school children. Medical Journal, 1, 7-14.
Power, C., Lake, J. K., Cole, T. J. (1997). Measurement and long-term health risk of
child and adolescent fatness. Instytuial Journal Obesity; 21, 507-526.
Tsigos, C., Hainer, V., Basdevant, A., Finer, N., Fried, M., Mathus-Vliegen, E.,
Micić, D., Maislos, M., Roman, G., Schutz, Y., Toplak, H., Zahorska-Markiewicz, B.
(2008). Management of Obesity in Adults. European Clinical Practice Guidelines Obesity
Facts.
WHO (1983). Measuring change in nutritional status. Guidelines for Assesing the
Nutritional Impact of Supplementary Feeding Progranunes for Vulnerable Groups. Geneva.
WHO Expert Committee (1995). Physical status: The use and interpretation of
anthropometry. WHO Technical Report Series 854. Geneva.
WHO Working Group (1986). Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of
nutritional status. Bull World Health Organ, 64 (6), 929-941.
World Health Organization, Europe (2005). The challenge of obesity in the WHO.
Yajnik, C. (2000). Interactions of perturbations in intrauterine growth and growth
during childhood outhe risk of adult-onset disease. Proc Nutr Soc., 59, 257-265.
19
EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2015
UDC 613.9:159.923.31
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY SATISFACTION AND PSYCHOPHYSICAL
HEALTH
Nevena Miučin1 and Jelena Šakotić-Kurbalija2
1Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad
2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad
Correspondence то:
Nevena Miučin
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy
University of Novi Sad
E-mail: nevena.miuchin@gmail.com
Abstract
Body satisfaction has become immensely popular topic over the last couple of decades, and
yet, there are still so many undiscovered aspects of the phenomenon which actively influence
people’s everyday lives. In this study, we’ve been investigating the connection between body
satisfaction and self-rated symptoms of psychophysical health. Sample comprised
393
women, aged 19 to 76, with different socio-economic status. In order to determine the
differences in psychophysical health between women who are satisfied with their body and
those who are not, discriminant analysis was applied. Obtained discriminant factor was
significant
(Wilks’ lambda=0.79; p level<0.01) which indicate that there is a significant
difference in the level of psychophysical health between women who are satisfied with their
body and those who are not. Results of this study show that women who are dissatisfied with
their body appearance are more likely to experience some symptoms of poor psychophysical
health (nervousness and irritability, fatigue, anxiety, digestive problems, poor productivity,
lack of energy and depressive thoughts) compared to the women who are satisfied with their
body appearance.
Keywords: body image, ideal figure, self-perceived health, stress
20
Introduction
The first definition of body image, which circumvented hitherto exclusively
neurological perspective, and took into account a psychological view, was conceived by Paul
Schilder as: ”The picture of our own body which we form in our mind, that is to say the way
in which the body appears to ourselves.” (Schilder, 2013, p. 11). Later, this definition was
modified to: ”The picture we have in our minds of the size, shape and form of our bodies; and
our feelings concerning these characteristics and our constituent body parts.”(Slade, 1994, p.
497). Formulated in this way, it highlights the distinction between two important
components: perceptual (the degree to which one can accurately assess their own body) and
attitudinal (feelings and thoughts one has towards their own body) (Slade, 1994). In this
research, we have focused on the latter, or more precisely, body satisfaction.
Body image related topics have become immensely popular in the past few decades
among researchers as well as laymen. Cash notes that the number of publication, regarding
body dissatisfaction, has doubled in the 2000s compared to the 1990s (Cash & Smolak,
2011). This is not completely surprising, considering massive changes in the culturally
imposed ideal figure over the last couple of decades. Idealized figure of woman’s body has
become slimmer and, due to the additional digital adjustments, almost impossible to attain.
Series of studies confirmed this by comparing size and weight measures of models in
magazine Playboy and Miss America pageant contestants from 1950s to 2000s (Garner et al.,
1980; Wiseman et al., 1992; Spitzer et al., 1999).
The notion that those rigorous expectations bypass male population is just ostensible.
Through various channels of mass media, men are constantly inundated with visuals of
idealized V-shape masculine figures and therefore compelled to compare themselves to those
ideals (Leit et al., 2002; Blond, 2008).
Interestingly, the roots of these influences become apparent even after a mere glance
at the most popular children’s toys. Dittmar and colleagues report that after the exposure to
the images of Barbie dolls, girls, ages 5 to 8, reported lower self-esteem and greater desire for
thinner body (Dittmar et al., 2006). At the same time, many of the boys’ favorite action toys,
which evidently represent an idealized male body in tiny plastic figures, become even more
muscular over time (Pope et al., 1999).
According to The Sociocultural Model, permanent exposure to idealized body images,
conveyed through the media, family and peers, leads to internalization of those ideals. The
level of discrepancy between idealized picture and individual’s own appearance determines
the level of (dis)satisfaction with their own body(Cash & Smolak, 2011). Body disturbance
can lead person to engage in various unhealthy behaviours (in order to attain desired body
shape) such as: eating restraint (Lunner et al., 2000), dieting (Davis, 1992; Cooley & Toray,
2001; Davison et al., 2003; Markey & Markey, 2005), binging (Cargill et al., 1999; Carano et
al., 2006) and purging (Brown et al., 1989), reluctance to quit smoking because of the risk of
weight gaining (King et al., 2005), lower levels of physical activity and fruit and vegetable
intake
(Neumark-Sztainer et al.,
2006). These behaviors can lead to dangerous health
21
outcomes (Fielding, 1985; Barr et al., 1994; Lakka et al., 2003; Tomiyama et al., 2010).
Besides the risks to physical health, it was found that body disturbance is associated with
mental health deterioration (Archer & Cash, 1985; Ali et al., 2010), namely, stress (Johnson
& Wardle, 2005; Murray et al., 2011), depression (Rierdan & Koff, 1997; Stice & Bearman,
2001; Johnson & Wardle, 2005) and low self-esteem (Ali et al., 2010).
Despite the fact that research on body image has been proliferating over the past
couple of decades, few studies investigated the potential impact body image disturbance has
on everyday functioning in non-clinical population. The majority of research has been
focused on the issues relating to the body image in the context of obesity and eating
disorders. On the other hand, there is a substantial group of studies that investigated the
impact some physical (AIDS, cancers, physical disabilities etc.) and mental (depression,
anxiety) deteriorations have on the perception, feelings and attitudes towards one’s own body
(Noles, Cash, & Winstead, 1985; Cash, 2004; Fobair et al., 2006; Grogan, 2007). Although
the significance of the studies scrutinizing the mediating/moderating role body image has in
complex psychological and physical issues is indisputable, the consequences of low body
satisfaction on every-day functioning in otherwise healthy individuals is unduly neglected.
Bearing in mind the vague nature of complex clinical problems related to the body
concerns (eating disorders, obesity, depression etc.), it is often hard to determine the exact
pertinence each contributing factor has in those problems. Some studies have shown that
perception of one’s own body appearance, rather than actual body size/weight, has a greater
influence on individual’s life (Ter Bogt et al., 2006; Muennig et al., 2008; Atlantis & Ball,
2008). More specifically, it was argued that the stress, as an aftermath of the disturbed body
perception, is the main contributing factor to poor health (Muennig et al., 2008; Atlantis &
Ball, 2008). Nevertheless, there is no consensus on the exact ratio between psychological,
biological and social contributors in those problems. On top of that, considering the human
disposition to misjudge their actual body size/weight and classify themselves as overweight
when they’re actually normal/underweight and vice versa (Donath, 2000), the question of the
severe clinical problems in combination with disturbed body image and their consequences
on physical and psychological functioning become even more difficult to untangle.
Therefore, in order to obtain a clearer picture of the phenomenon, it is justified to investigate
body image out of those complicated issues and assess its influence on daily functioning in
non-clinical population.
In that matter, some studies investigated the relationship between body image and
various aspects of quality of life. It was shown that people who are satisfied with their body
appearance also experience a greater degree of subjective well-being (Stokes & Frederick-
Recascino, 2003), better sexual functioning (Weaver & Byers, 2006) and have more positive
perception of their life-style (Kwak et al., 2011).
Study conducted on a sample in Serbia has shown that body satisfaction has a
moderating role between obesity and subjective well-being. With BMI controlled, body
dissatisfaction was significantly correlated with higher level of emotional distress and lower
22
level of positive emotions. Authors concluded that satisfaction with one’s own body
represents more important factor for subjective well-being than a mere body weight (Brdaric
et al., 2015).
Aim of this research is to build upon the existing knowledge on body image by
illuminating its potential harmful effects on different and yet not sufficiently scrutinized
aspects of psychophysical functioning.
Considering the popularity that body related themes have among general population
(due to the omnipresence of idealized body commercials and displays) and the huge effect
that those established body ideals have on people’s perceptions of their own bodies, it is
highly relevant to investigate all possible consequences of such preoccupation. Although
there is a substantial body of work on the detrimental role body dissatisfaction has in some
serious clinical problems (obesity, anorexia, bulimia), evident is the lack of studies that tackle
those problems in otherwise healthy individuals. Purpose of this study was to determine if the
satisfaction with one’s own body appearance, as alone factor, can be a significant indicator of
their psychophysical health in non-clinical sample of women.
Method
This study was a part of larger research, conducted on the territory of Republic of
Serbia, which originally included 2206 women, aged 19-76, with different socio-economic
status. Questionnaires were administered through schools, kindergartens and gynecology
offices (which assured that women without children were included) in larger cities as well as
in villages and smaller towns. Participants took the questionnaires home, filled them out and
returned them in closed envelopes. The participation was completely anonymous and
voluntary.
For the purpose of this study, the number of included participants was reduced. In the
original research, body dissatisfaction was assessed with 5-point Likert scale, which resulted
in normally distributed data. As the main problem of this study was to determine potential
differences in psychophysical health between women who are satisfied with their body
appearance and women who aren’t, we sought for a clearer distinction between those two
groups. In order to obtain that, participants from the ”middle” were excluded and only those
who on the item: ”I have attractive body.” Answered either with ”completely correct” and
”mostly incorrect” or with
”completely incorrect” were included in the analysis. This
reduction resulted in the final sample of 393 women.
Psychophysical health was assessed with the Scale of Psychophysical Health (SPFZ;
Majstorovic, 2011) which included 23 items with 4-point Likert scale (“no, I didn’t”, “yes,
but rarey”, “yes, often”, “yes, daily”) pertaining to the self perceived level of some of the
symptoms of psychophysical health. Participants assessed how many times in the last four
23
weeks they have experienced some of the following symptoms: problems with physical
health, fear and anxiety, depressive reactions, disturbance in social functioning and fatigue.
In order to determine the difference in psychophysical health between women who are
satisfied with their body and those who are not, discriminative function analysis was applied.
Results
In order to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in
psychophysical health status between people who are satisfied with their body appearance
and those who are not, a discriminant analysis was conducted. Significant difference in
means between groups is obtained on almost every psychophysical health status item
(p<0.05). Canonical correlation of 0.45 shows that 20% of variance between groups is
explained by the proposed model. Wilks’ lambda (0.8) with p level<0.01 indicates significant
discriminant function. In other words it suggests that there is a correlation between
psychophysical health and body satisfaction. However, the high value of Wilks’ lambda
implies that
80% variability in discriminant scores is explained with factors other than
differences in health status.
Items
Function
p124 You’ve noticed a slowdown in your work activities
.517
p117 You’ve had doubts in your work abilities
.495
p125 You’ve become impatient with others
.491
p128 You’ve noticed you quickly lose spirit
.465
p127 You’ve noticed that you’re tired without any visible reason
.464
p120 You’ve felt that what you do makes sense no more
.429
p122 You’ve had a feeling that you’re bothering others with your
.408
problems
p116 You’ve been avoiding people
.391
p123 You’ve been enjoying talking to people(r)
.-
385
p108 You’ve had stomach problems or other problems with digestive
.342
system (gastritis etc.)
p115 You’ve had troubles with usual activities in your household
.324
p119 You’ve felt that you’re worth nothing
.311
p111 You’ve been nervous and uptight
.302
Table 1. Excerpt from Structure Matrix
24
Structure matrix
(Table
1) shows bipolar discriminant function. Positive pole is
defined by the experience of different aspects of poor psychophysical health such as digestive
problems, nervousness and irritability, fatigue, anxiety, perception of poor productivity, lack
of energy and depressive thoughts. Negative pole is determined by pleasure taken in
conversation with others.
Discriminant function divides respondents by assigning negative value to the group of
people who are satisfied with their body (-.44) and positive values to the group of people who
are dissatisfied with their body (.58) (Figure 1). In other words, it suggests that people who
are satisfied with their body appearance are healthier than those who are not satisfied.
Figure 1. Distribution of discriminative scores
Classification results revealed that 71.2% of respondents were classified correctly
with cases in satisfied group
(75.4%) classified slightly more accurately than those in
dissatisfied group (65.7%).
Discussion
The results of this study suggest that there is a certain relationship between body
satisfaction and perceived psychophysical health status. Namely, it appears that people who
are satisfied with their body appearance feel better, in terms of psychophysical health,
compared to the people who are not satisfied. These findings complement earlier studies
25
which revealed the importance body satisfaction has in the context of various health-related
behaviours (Brown et al., 1989; Davis, 1992; Cargill et al., 1999; Lunner et al., 2000; Cooley
& Toray, 2001; Davison et al., 2003; Markey & Markey, 2005; King et al., 2005; Carano et
al.,
2006; Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2006) as well as in a relation to some psychological
difficulties (Archer & Cash, 1985; Rierdan & Koff, 1997; Stice & Bearman, 2001; Johnson &
Wardle, 2005; Ali et al., 2010; Murray et al., 2011).
Considering studies which investigated body dissatisfaction as an incentive for
unhealthy behaviour, it is reasonable to take that view as a possible framework for the results
of this research. In other words, we can presume that dissatisfaction with body appearance
can lead a person to take some physically and mentally exhausting actions (like eating
restraint, excessive workouts, poor diet etc.) which can consequently cause their poor
psychophysical health. At the same time, people who are satisfied with their body engage in
healthy behaviours
(to preserve that desired body image) and therefore have better
psychophysical health.
Another possible explanation may lie in the amount of stress that people who are not
satisfied with their body can experience. That stress, caused by constant preoccupation and
feeling of incongruity with the socially desirable standards of body shape/weight, may
consequently lead to poor psychophysical health (Muennig et al., 2008).
Conversely, the obtained results can be interpreted in a way that an exacerbation in
psychophysical health can produce an overall feeling of discontentment, which implies,
among other things, the discomfort in one’s own body. Also, it is possible that some people,
when experiencing some kind of psychophysical difficulty, resort to different unhealthy
behaviours, due to the lack of energy or in order to make themselves feel better (e.g.
excessive eating, sedentary activities), which can consequently lead to disturbed body image.
It should be taken into consideration that the relationship between body satisfaction
and psychophysical health might be more complicated and that some additional variables
should be included in order to get comprehensive image. Self-esteem, as hierarchical and
multifaceted phenomenon (Shavelson et al., 1976), seems like a relevant factor for the better
understanding of the results obtained in this study. On the one hand, self perception of
physical appearance is often considered as one of the facet of global self-esteem (Sonstroem
& Morgan, 1989; Fox & Corbin, 1989; Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991; Goldenberg et al.,
2000). On the other hand, some studies show that there is a solid association between self-
esteem and mental and physical health (McGee & Williams, 2000; Mann et al., 2004).
Considering those findings, it seems justified, for future studies, to investigate a particular
role that self-esteem might have in this context.
Obtained results serve as a good starting point for further examination of the
relationship between body satisfaction and psychophysical health. It would be useful for
future studies to assess the level of stress (caused specifically by poor body image) and
possibly elucidate the obtained connection between body satisfaction and psychophysical
health.
26
Although there is an impression of abundance of literature related to the body image,
results of this study show that there are still some undiscovered aspects of the phenomenon
that can strongly influence people’s lives. It is often accentuated that dissatisfaction with
body appearance has an important role in the context of obesity and eating disorders, but little
is known about its adverse impact on otherwise healthy individuals. Considering the
culturally imposed, almost unattainable ideal body figure and pervasive popularity of various
fitness programs and diets, the pressure on average person to strive toward that ideal seems
inevitable. In contrast to those ubiquitous messages, people are generally still dissatisfied
with their body shape/weight which consequently creates a great discord between reality and
desire and can lead to interior conflicts and adverse psychological outcomes. Considering
that, the phenomenon of body image should be scrutinized in more depth, in non-clinical
context, so its potential influence on different aspects of quality of life can be illuminated.
References
Ali, M. M., Fang, H., & Rizzo, J. A. (2010). Body weight, self-perception and mental health
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30
EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2015
UDC 81.276.6:796.342
CREATION OF ENGLISH-BASED TENNIS TERMS IN SERBIAN
Mira Milić1, Željko Jonić1 and Ivana Đurić Mojsilović
1 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
2 College of Business Assistance, Istočno Sarajevo - Sokolac
Abstract
The aim of this study is to carry out terminological standardization of tennis terms in
Serbian as a contribution to publishing the 2nd expanded edition of the existing English-
Serbian dictionary of sports terms entitled Englesko-srpski rečnik sportskih termina.
Research is a corpus-based contrastive analysis of tennis terms in English and Serbian, which
were taken over from Tenniswikipedia glossary containing 254 entries, commentaries in
Serbian during live broadcast of Masters and 2014-2015 GrandSlam matches, and online
Serbian journalistic texts on tennis. The contrastive approach is justified by the fact that
tennis terms in Serbian are created by adaptation of English terms through transshaping and
translation. Given that tennis is a recently popularized sport in Serbia and that no serious
attempt has been made so far to compile a glossary of standard tennis terms in Serbian, the
findings indicate abundance of non-adapted lexical borrowings from English, due to which
terminological standardization deserves particular attention.
Keywords: English, Serbian, standardization, tennis, terminology.
Introduction
The purpose of this research is to contribute to the efforts relating to the process of
standardization of the sports terminology in Serbian, by proposing standardized terms in the
tennis register to be included in the second expanded edition of the existing English-Serbian
dictionary of sports terms entitled Englesko-srpski rečnik sportskih termina [English-Serbian
dictionary of sports terms] published in
2006. The theoretical aspects of the expanded
dictionary have already been elaborated in Milić (2015b). The examined corpus of 254 tennis
terms is compiled from Tenniswikipedia glossary in English commentaries in Serbian during
live broadcast of Masters and GrandSlam 2014-2015 matches, and online Serbian journalistic
texts on tennis. Consequently, tennis terms in Serbian have been created by adaptation of
31
English terms through transshaping1
(e.g. return
> RITERN) and translation (ball kid
>
SKUPLJAČ LOPTICA). Research is based on MA thesis by Željko Jonić defended in June 2015,
under the title Teniski termini u engleskom jeziku i njihovo prevoÿenje na srpski [Tennis
terms in English and their translation to Serbian].
Analysis of the corpus
The main aim of this analysis is to find out the extent of the formal correspondence of
semantic relationships and morphosyntax of tennis terms in English and Serbian. English and
Serbian examples are shown in italics and small capitals respectively, with a symbol “>”
between examples, which indicates the direction of adaptation, from English into Serbian.
Semantic analysis of tennis terms
Before getting insight into semantic relations of tennis terms it deems necessary to
give a definition of a term, which is the key concept of this research. Consequently, a term is
a lexical unit which acquires terminological meaning when it is activated by the pragmatic
characteristics of the discourse (cf. Cabré 2003, 189). Even though a term is a lexical unit, the
semantic relations it develops within a terminological system are different from those in the
general lexicon. The following analysis deals with a contrastive analysis of synonymy,
antonymy, and hyponymy of terms in the terminological system of tennis.
Synonymy accounts for a number of variant terms in both languages. However, this
semantic relationship seems to be generally non-correspondent in the two languages. The
ones in English are the consequence of: clipping (e.g. flat=flat shot > both, RAVAN UDARAC),
changed perspective
(e.g. overgrip=overwrap
> both, OMOTAČ RUKOHVATA), spelling
variation (e.g. racquet=racket > both, REKET), and stylistic variation (e.g. tweener=between
the legs shot > both, ŠUT IZMEĐU NOGU). However, synonyms in Serbian are generally the
consequence of dual adaptation of English terms, i.e. adaptation through transshaping and
translation (e.g. lucky loser > LAKI LUZER = SREĆNI GUBITNIK.
Terminological antonymy is based on spontaneous associations of oppositeness and
contrast, as well as on the knowledge of the existence of concepts and phenomena being in a
contrast relationship, such as matter and non-matter,
(Gortan-Premk
2004). However,
antonymy seems to be less frequent than synonymy, but more correspondent in English and
Serbian than synonymy, e.g. doubles singles > PAROVI POJEDINAČNO, inside-in inside-
out - INSAJDIN INSAJDAUT, loser winner > POBEDNIK PORAŽENI, etc.
Eventually, the standard system of concepts in the tennis register is reflected
linguistically in a hyponymic organization of terms in English and Serbian alike.
Accordingly, tennis hyponymy is exemplified by four hypernyms common to ball games in
32
general: 1. court > TEREN (shape, size, markings, etc.), 2. equipment > OPREMA (balls, net, net
posts, etc.),
3. officials and official’s signals > SUDIJE I SUDIJSKI ZNACI (chair umpire >
GLAVNI SUDIJA, line umpire > LINIJSKI SUDIJA, and ball person > SKUPLJAČ LOPTICA), and 4.
play > IGRA. The fourth hypernym accounts for the highest number of hyponyms each of
which takes the function of hypernyms with their own hyponyms, such as: types of shot
(backand > BEKHEND, drive volley > DRAJV-VOLEJ, forehand > FORHEND, half volley > POLU-
VOLEJ), types of faults (foot fault > PRESTUP, touch > DODIR MREŽE) and types of service
(kick-seve > KIK-SERVIS, service winner > SERVIS-VINER).
Morphosyntactic analysis of tennis terms in English and Serbian
As confirmed by previous research in sports terminology, terms are predominantly
nouns (Cabré 1999: 70) and, to a lesser extent, verbs (Milić 2015a, 3), both of which are to a
great extent two-word items, which are referred to as polylexical units in this paper (cf. Milić
2015a: 5). Single-word terms are either simple terms (play > IGRA) or complex terms formed
by affixation (player > IGRAČ), compounding (backhand > BEKEND), conversion (play >
IGRATI) or clipping (ATP (Association of Tennis Professionals) > ATP [EI-TI-PI]). Even
though the above examples show predominantly correspondent units in terms of word
formation processes, tennis terms are not necessarily correspondent in English and Serbian,
e.g. winner > DIREKTAN POEN, drive volley > POLU-VOLEJ, crossover > PRESTUP.
Standardization of tennis terms in Serbian
According to Vries
(1997,
79), standardization is defined as
“the activity of
establishing and recording a limited set of solutions to actual or potential matching problems
directed at benefits for the party or parties involved, balancing their needs and expecting and
intending that these solutions will be repeatedly and continuously used during a certain
period by substantial number of the parties for whom they are intended.” Consequently, there
are two basic requirements of the process of standardization. These are matching various
features of an entity (object, event, idea, process, etc.) and normativeness of a set standard.
Accordingly, the process of standardization can only be accomplished by mutual efforts of
linguistic and technical specialists (selecting a language variant, setting and elaborating a
code, and compiling a dictionary), on the one hand, and the whole community (acceptance of
the set standard and its updating according to the new requirements), on the other. With this
in mind, Milić (2006) has proposed a model including six principles arranged according to
the order of priority, which is practically applied in the process of standardization of ball
game terms in Serbian. The model is briefly described below.
33
The model of standardization of sports terms in Serbian
Research and practical steps in this paper are based on the model applied in the
existing dictionary (Milić 2006), which includes a hierarchically ordered set of six principles.
They are bi-univocity, transparency, systematicity, productivity, concision, and frequency. In
the text that follows, each principle is defined and exemplified by the tennis terms from the
analyzed corpus. The consequence of the process of standardization is reordering or
modification of the existing translation equivalents, provided that the proposed term is always
listed first. In the following examples, this term is designated as (1) in front.
Bi-univocity
Bi-univocity, which is the top priority principle in terminology, implies the
requirement that the term should represent only one concept in a register (Dubuc 1997, 156;
Felber, 1984, 183). Accordingly, this principle is applicable to synonymous tennis terms
accounting for 21 units (of total 254 entries) in English and just a few in Serbian. In English,
synonymy is due to clipping (e.g. pass passing shot PASING-ŠOT PASING-ŠOT), changed
perspective (e.g. overgrip overwrap > OMOTAČ RUKOHVATA = OMOTAČ RUKOHVATA) or
stylistic variation (e.g. racquet
racket
> REKET = REKET), whilst it is predominantly the
result of dual adaptation of the source English term in Serbian. The process of standardization
of synonymous tennis terms in Serbian is exemplified below.
-
drop shot > before DROP SHOT, DROPŠOT, SKRAĆENI UDARAC; after (1) DROP-ŠOT, (2)
SKRAĆENI UDARAC
-
forehand >before FORHEND, PREDNJI UDARAC; after (1) FORHEND, (2) PREDNJI UDARAC
Transparency
Transparency implies the requirement that the concept a term designates should be
inferred without a definition (cf. ISO 704 2000, 25). Even though translation equivalent of an
English term is preferred to an anglicism, the fact is that most borrowed tennis terms are
more transparent in Serbian than their translation equivalents. For this reason, the priority is
predminantly given to anglicisms, as shown by the following examples.
-
backhand
> before ZADNJI UDARAC, BEKHEND; after (1) BEKHEND,
(2) ZADNJI
UDARAC
-
deuce > before DJUS, IZJEDNAČENJE; after (1) IZJEDNAČENJE, (2) DJUS
-
hawk-eye > before HOKAJ = SOKOLOVO OKO; after (1) HOKAJ, (2) SOKOLOVO OKO.
Systematicity
Pertaining to the ISO principle of linguistic correctness (ISO 704 2000, 27), a term is
systematic if it is in accordance with the linguistic system of Serbian, which concerns the
levels of orthography, phonology, and morphosyntax. The analysis of the corpus shows that
34
the predominant deviations occur in: writing compounds, semi-compounds, and anglicisms,
as well as concerning phonological adaptation of anglicisms.
-
advantage court > before PREDNOST-STRANA; after (1) (1) STRANA PREDNOSTI, (2)
PREDNOST-STRANA
-
ATP > before ATP [ei-ti-pi]; after ATP [a-te-pe]
-
lob volley > before LOBVOLEJ, LOB VOLEJ; after LOB-VOLEJ
-
service winner > before SERVIS VINER; after SERVIS-VINER
-
stop volley > ŠTOP VOLEJ, STOP VOLLEY; after ŠTOP-VOLEJ
Productivity
The presented model is based on Prćić's (1999) definition of productivity, according
to which it is defined here as the characteristic of the language system which enables
communicators to encode and decode the maximum number of higher order terminological
units. Having in mind the fact that tennis terms are predominantly nouns, the analysis of the
corpus indicates that the productive bound morphemes for noun formation are fully utilized,
even though they are not necessarily correspondent in the two languages. Examples include:
affixes and free morphemes in compounds, e.g. mini-break > MINI-BREJK (neoclassical
composition), qualifier > KVALIFIKANT (affixation), split step > MEĐU-KORAK (compunding),
stretching > PROKLIZAVANJE (affixation). In light of the fact that polylexical terms are mostly
two-word units, it may be concluded that their productivity is generally satisfactory.
Consequently, the process of standardization in terms of productivity included the following
examples.
-
break back > before ODUZETI SERVIS; after (1) POVRATITI BREJK, (2) ODUZETI
SERVIS
-
hot dog > before UDARAC KROZ NOGE UNAZAD; after
-
serve and volley > before SERVIS VOLEJ IGRA; after (1) SERVIS-VOLEJ, (2) IGRA
SERVIS-VOLEJ
-
squash shot > before SKVOŠ UDARAC; after SKVOŠ-UDARAC
Concision
Concision is essentially the principle of language economy, and it implies that a term
should not be too long (cf. ISO 704 2000, 24). Generally, the corpus indicates that tennis
terms are predominantly single-word units, which means that this principle will not require
much effort, except in cases when translation equivalents are multi-word units, as
exemplified below.
-
Hail Mary > before SITUACIJA KAD IGRAČ LOBUJE PROTIVNIKA NA MREŽI JAKO
VISOKIM UDARCEM, „HEJL MERI“, HAIL MARY; after (1) HEJL MERI, (2) SITUACIJA
KAD IGRAČ LOBUJE PROTIVNIKA NA MREŽI JAKO VISOKIM UDARCEM
35
-
overhead > before UDARAC KOJI IGRAČ IGRA PREKO GLAVE; after (1) UDARAC
PREKO GLAVE, (2) UDARAC KOJI IGRAČ IGRA PREKO GLAVE.
Frequency
Referencing Bowman (1977, 155), a term with the highest frequency of use should be
preferred over its competitors. Even though this principle is computer-determined nowadays,
it can only be based on the rate of occurrence of a particular term in the corpus, since
electronic corpus does not exist in Serbian. The principle is generally applied in case when
there are more variants of an English term in Serbian. In ordering variant terms in Serbian,
preference is given to translation equivalents, if applicable. However, if an anglicism seems
to be more transparent and more frequent, it is given the status of a standard term in Serbian.
The application of this principle usually results in reordering of the existing variant terms in
Serbian, as shown by the following examples.
-
return
> before RITERN, POVRATAN UDARAC SERVISA; after (1) RITERN, (2)
POVRATAN UDARAC SERVISA
-
Hawk-Eye > before „HOKAJ“, SISTEM HOKAJ, SOKOLOVO OKO; after (1) HOKAJ, (2)
SISTEM HOKAJ.
Concluding remarks related to standardization of tennis terms
With reference to the above process of standardization of tennis terms in Serbian, the
following conclusions can be drawn. First of all, it is necessary to point out that most terms
were subjected to processing related to more than one principle. Which of these is given
priority depends on the hierarchy of the six-principle model applied here, which is
determined according to the communicative aspect within terminological system. The fact
that a standard term cannot fulfill the requirements of all principles is clearly exemplified by
Hail Mary, whose former translation equivalent in Serbian was SITUACIJA KAD IGRAČ LOBUJE
PROTIVNIKA NA MREŽI JAKO VISOKIM UDARCEM. Since this translation equivalent does not
fulfill the principles of systematicity and concision, it is ranked as variant of the standard
term which is an adapted anglicism HEJL MERI. Secondly, the number of principles and their
priority are not final, which means that this might be changed in accordance with the
requirements of a new register and the needs of society (Radovanović, 1979, 86). Lastly, it is
obvious from this section that terminology belongs to sport and linguistics alike. Thus a
successful process of standardization depnds not only on the efforts of sports specialists but
also on the efforts of linguistis, as well as on proper actions taken by the whole linguistic
community in terms of acceptance, implementation, expansion and cultivation of the
proposed standard (cf. Radovanović 1984, 86).
36
Conclusion
To sum up, the aim of this research is to contribute to compilation of an expanded
edition of the existing English-Serbian dictionary of sports terms (Milić, 2006). In doing so,
this research is based on the linguistic approach to terminology focused on contact aspects of
English and Serbian, due to the fact that tennis terms are created by adaptation through
trnsshaping and translation of English terms into Serbian. The semantic analysis of tennis
terms indicates that there is a high number of anglicisms some of which are not justified in
Serbian. The analysis also indicates that most terms have dual forms in Serbian,
predominantly a non-adapted anglicism and its translation equivalent, which indicates the
need for standardization. In terms of morphsyntax, the findings indicate that the translated
terms are created by adding terminological meaning to a general lexeme, whereas the derived
terms are predominantly created by affixation with a high extent of formal correspondence
between English and Serbian.
The fact that terms are generally created by improper adaptation of English terms
through transshaping and translation, gives high priority to the process of standardization in
Serbian. Consequently, tennis terminology in Serbian is standardized according to the model
proposed by Milić (2006), which has already been applied in the existing English-Serbian
dictionary of sports terms (Milić 2006). The model consists of six hierarchically ordered
principles. They are: bi-univocity, transparency, systematicity, productivity, concision, and
frequency. The most important practical aspect of this research is a glossary of tennis terms in
English and Serbian, whole lexicographic description is the same as the one applied in the
existing dictionary (Milić 2006), which enables its incorporation in the planned expanded
version.
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