EQOL Journal (2017) 9(1): 23-29
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Morphological characteristics and motor abilities of boys aged 15 and
17
Milica Blagojevic1 Slobodan Cirak2 Borislav Obradovic1Filip Sadri1 Milorad Jaksic1
‹ The Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access.
Abstract
Keywords adolescents
anthropometric
parameters standing long jump running at 30
Measuring of morphological characteristics and
meters
motor abilities was performed on the sample of 51
male students of the secondary traffic school
“Pinki” from Novi Sad. Body height and body mass
were used for measuring of morphological
Introduction
characteristics, and results of standing long jump
and running at 30 meters with standing start were
Growth and development of young people in the
used for measuring of motor abilities. The body
period between 15 and 17 is heterochronic and
mass index was calculated after the results were
non-linear. This discrepancy between growth and
obtained. The aims of the study were to establish
development is reflected by the difference in motor
and analyze differences in the results of
conduct and change of anthropometric measures
morphological status and explosive strength of
among sexes, through non-linearity disparity of
students measured in different periods, in the first
growth and development of certain anthropometric
measurement when the subjects were 15 years old
properties with an individual, and compared with
and in the second measurement when the subjects
that individual’s peers. Young people in this age
were 17 years old. The data obtained in the study
are more influenced by all the factors of
were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA.
contemporary living than the adult population.
The obtained results indicate the existence of
Hypokinesia, obesity, environmental pollution,
statistically significant differences between first and
unhealthy living conditions,
“fast food”,
second measurement in all morphological
decreasing number of sports fields and green areas
characteristics and motor abilities, at the level of
in populated places - are just some of negative
significance of p<0.05.A significant increase in
factors disturbing the regular growth, development
morphological characteristics and motor abilities
and health of young people. Reduction of the
with age, indicating that boys have adequate growth
negative effects may be conducted through
and development for their age.The age factor has a
physical activity with a beneficial impact upon
significantly stronger influence than the factor of the
health, as scientifically proven. The obvious
curriculum for the physical education in this high
decrease of attitudes of students in this age to
school.
physical education in all the segments
(motor
abilities, motivation factor, etc.), increased impact
of disturbing factors on the lives of students even
in such a short-term period, abrupt, and in some
bogdanovskimilica@gmail.com
cases, unadjusted body mass and height gain on
1
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and
one hand, and explosive strength - as an indicator
Physical Education, Serbia
of general strength, on the other hand, are the facts
2
that made the authors interested in this kind of
Secondary traffic school “Pinki”, Novi Sad, Serbia
study.
23
EQOL Journal (2017) 9(1): 23-29
Model of the structure of morphologic
to 18 years (Kurelic et al., 1975). During biological
characteristics consists of four morphological factors:
maturation physical potential is constantly evolving
longitudinal dimensionality of the skeleton,
and improving, determining different physical
transversal dimensionality of the skeleton, body
characteristics of each individual.
volume and body mass, and subcutaneous adipose
In the period of rapid physiological development
tissue
(Kurelic et al.,
1975; Momirovic,
1969).
occurring during puberty in the age between 15 and
Monitoring of morphological characteristics in the
17, all the motor abilities are developed along with a
field of kinesiology research is also done by the use
rapid development of morphological characteristics
of body mass index (BMI) as the control indicator of
that could, but do not have to be adjusted with each
physical constitution. Increased levels of BMI are
other (or have an adjusted development). The aim of
believed to reduce the levels of motor abilities of
the study is to establish the relations between the
children of different ages (Graf et al., 2004).
results of measuring of morphological status and
According to data for 2006, more than two thirds
explosive strength of students, measured in various
of adult population in Serbia is physically inactive
periods.
(67.7%). The percentage of adult population that
exercised more than three times a week, to the extent
that they lost breath or became sweaty, was 25.5%
Method
that is significantly higher than in 2000, when that
percentage was
13.7%
(National Health Survey
The method of this paper is a longitudinal study with
Serbia). The survey
(Zotovic & Petrovic,
2010)
one experimental group. The experimental treatment
conducted on the territory of Vojvodina on the sample
represented an established curriculum of physical
of 1103 students of secondary schools has shown that,
education for the students of first, second and third
out of all the offered activities, sport occupied 35% of
grades of secondary school during their regular
free time, as compared to listening to music (90%),
growth and development.
spending time with friends (78.5%) and going out
The sample of subjects consisted of 51 students,
(74.5%). In terms of sports, the preferred activities in
non-athletes, of the secondary traffic school from
free time are different between sexes - young men
Novi Sad. The enrolment criterion for students was to
expressed a greater interest as compared to girls.
be healthy at the moment of both tests, that they were
At the beginning of the secondary school, the
not relieved from the classes of physical education,
biological development is intensive, uneven and
that they were 15 ± 6 months on the date of testing in
heterochronic. The mid-secondary school age is
the first measuring and minimum 17 ± 6 months on
characterized by prominent growth, with the rate of
the date of testing in the second measuring. The first,
up to 10 cm per year (Ugarkovic, 1996). Young
initial measuring was performed when students were
people in this age are very skilled and they achieve
in the first grade of secondary school (15 years of
good results in physical activities.
age), and the second, final measuring, when they were
in the third grade of secondary school (17 years of
Insufficient development of certain traits (abstract
age).
thinking, focus of attention, self-control, self-
criticism) may be one of the causes because of which
Anthropometric measures were used for this
the today’s youth motivation during physical
study:
education classes is at the low level.
Body height (BH) - was measured using the
In the context of overall development of the
anthropometer developed by Martin, with a 1mm
individual, the processes of growth, differentiation
accuracy.
and functional maturation of tissue do not always go
Body mass (BM) - was measured using a digital
along with the pace of change, which causes different
balance.
structure of morphological dimensions. These
processes are particularly intense in the period of
Body mass index (BMI) - was calculated using
development between 11 and 17 years of age, in
mathematical standard formula.
which formed are not only major morphological
Motor tests were used to compare differences in
characteristics and the physical proportions, but also
motor abilities:
the changes in the development and the activity of
certain tissues and organs. This period is the period of
Standing Long Jump (SLJ) - the student stands
adolescence and in males extends from 12 to 13 to 17
behind a line marked on the ground with feet slightly
24
EQOL Journal (2017) 9(1): 23-29
apart. A two-foot take-off and landing is used, with
measures (SK) as a parameter of symmetry, kurtosis
swinging of the arms and bending of the knees to
measures (KU) indicated the elongation, or flatness
provide forward drive. Students attempt to jump as far
i.e. whether the observed distribution statistically
as possible, landing on both feet without falling
significantly differs from the normal distribution, p-
backwards.
value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p<0.05). The
difference between first and second measurements
Running at 30 meters (RUN30) - the test involves
was analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA.
running a single maximum sprint over 30 meters, with
the time recorded. Start from a stationary position,
with one foot in front of the other. The front foot must
Results
be on or behind the starting line. The students should
provide hints for maximizing speed and encouraged
The minimum and maximum values of
to continue running hard through the finish line.
morphological characteristics and motor abilities in
Measuring was performed once a year during the
the first measuring (15 years of age), as well as in the
first and the third years of secondary school, in
second measuring (17 years of age) are shown in the
September and October. The first measuring was
Table 1 and indicated that the values are in the
performed during the first half of the first year of
expected range. Values of the variation coefficient
secondary school, when students were 15, and the
point to the homogeneity of features. Increased values
second one during the first half of the third year of
of SK indicated that the distribution is negatively
secondary school, when students were
17. All
asymmetrical, meaning that the distribution curve is
measurements were performed over the period of two
inclined towards higher values, at BM, BMI, RUN30
weeks in September and October, during the physical
(for the age of 15); and at BH, BM, BMI, RUN30(for
education class. The students were volunteers, male,
the age of 17). The reduced SK values indicated that
without chronic health issues, and examined by a
the distribution is positively asymmetrical, meaning
physician. Measuring was performed in the gym
that the result distribution curve is inclined towards
(fitness room) and on the open sports field belonging
lower values, for BH, SLJ (for the age of 15); and for
to the school.
SLJ (for the age of 17). Higher KU values indicated
The first part analyzed central and dispersive
that the curve is elongated for BMI (for the age of 15);
parameters, measures of asymmetry and kurtosis
and for BH, BMI (for the age of 17). Negative
measures compared to the monitored parameters. The
kurtosis values indicated that the curve is flattened,
for BH, BM, SLJ, RUN30 (at the age of 15); and for
processed parameters are: mean(M), standard
deviation
(SD), minimum and maximum values
BM, SLJ, RUN30 (at the age of 17).
(MIN/MAX), coefficient of variation
(CV)
indicating, within groups, in which feature a group
varies more or less, and which group varies more or
less, considering the treated features, skewness
Table 2. Central, dispersion parameters and measures of skewness and kurtosis at the first measurement (15 years of age) and at the
second measurement (17 years of age)
Initial measurement
Final measurement
Variables
M
SD
MIN
MAX
M
SD
MIN
MAX
Body height (cm)
172.53
8.58
156.0
188.0
178.03
7.01
165.0
195.0
Body weight (kg)
64.89
12.91
39.0
94.0
71.60
13.88
49.7
101.0
Body mass index (kg/m²)
21.65
3.17
16.0
32.6
22.51
3.78
17.1
33.9
Standing long jump (cm)
204.02
17.41
160.0
238.0
216.47
22.91
159.0
265.0
30m running (s)
4.72
0.35
4.20
5.50
4.59
0.38
4.00
5.60
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EQOL Journal (2017) 9(1): 23-29
Table 1 (continued).
Initial measurement
Final measurement
Variables
CV
SK
KU
p
CV
SK
KU
p
Body height (cm)
4.97
-0.05
-0.88
0.983
3.93
0.48
0.12
0.344
Body weight (kg)
19.90
0.46
-0.19
0.558
19.38
0.33
-0.87
0.809
Body mass index (kg/m²)
14.63
1.00
1.40
0.374
16.80
0.84
0.49
0.758
Standing long jump (cm)
8.53
-0.47
-0.20
0.860
10.58
-0.28
-0.20
1.000
30m running (s)
7.45
0.74
-0.27
0.190
8.36
0.71
-0.29
0.280
Based on the data presented, it can be concluded
meaning that the subjects in the second measuring
that the results of students are homogenous, in both
were statistically significantly higher and heavier and
first and second measuring, in morphological
that they express higher explosive strength and speed
characteristics and motor abilities, and that their
that in the first measuring when the subjects were
results were within the range of regular distribution
fifteen years old.
and that the students had approximately the same
The results in Table 2 indicated that there were
body height, body mass and are at the similar level or
statistically significant differences in all variables
running, standing long jump and that they were at the
between the two measurements at the significance
similar level of explosive strength.
level of p < 0.05. The greatest observed difference
These data support the theory that there was a
was in the field of BH (.000), BM (.000) and SLJ
clearly defined limit between the measured values of
(.000), followed by the results of RUN30 (.001) and
morphological characteristics and motor abilities of
BMI (.007).
students aged 15, and the same students aged 17,
Table 2. The differences between variables of students at the first and second measurement - 15 and 17 years of age (repeated
measures ANOVA)
Initial measurement
Final measurement
Variables
mean±SD
mean±SD
F
p
η2
Body height (cm)
172.53±8.58
178.03±7.01
72.839
0.000
0.593
Body weight (kg)
64.89±12.91
71.60±13.88
47.939
0.000
0.489
Body mass index (kg/m²)
21.65±3.17
22.51±3.78
7.881
0.007
0.136
Standing long jump (cm)
204.02±17.41
216.47±22.91
37.654
0.000
0.430
30m running (s)
4.72±0.35
4.59±0.38
11.618
0.001
0.189
Characteristics of every sub-sample of measuring
Table 3. Characteristics and homogeneity measurements of
were mostly defined by the RUN30 as its contribution
morphological characteristics and motor abilities of students
between the ages of 15 and 17 years
to characteristics was
71.79% followed by: BH
(12.82%), SLJ
(12.82%), BMI (2.56%) and BM
Initial
Final
Variable
con %
(0.00%). Homogeneity of the first measuring (15
meas.
meas.
years of age) is 68.63%, and of the second measuring
Body height (cm)
<
>*
12.82
(17 years of age) is 62.75% (Table 3).
Body weight (kg)
<
>*
0.00
Body mass index (kg/m²)
<
>
2.56
Standing long jump (cm)
<
>*
12.82
30m running
>*
<
71.79
N/m
35/51
32/51
hmg%
68.63
62.75
Legend: hgm%-homogeneity measurement; N/m-the number of
respondents with the characteristics of the group; con%-contribution of
characteristics to the performance measurement;
*-the existence of
statistical significance of differences
26
EQOL Journal (2017) 9(1): 23-29
Based on measuring of morphological
improves with age. Unlike our results, improvement
characteristics and motor abilities of students aged 15
in the morphological characteristics and motor
and 17, the following can be stated: in the first
abilities were attributed more to the curriculum for
measuring (15 years of age), running contributed
physical education, rather than age. Similar results in
more to measuring characteristics, and body height,
their study get Glavac et al. (2015), which examined
standing long jump, body mass index and body mass
the differences in morphological characteristics and
contributed less to measuring characteristics, whereas
motor abilities of students all four years of the
in the second measuring (17 years of age), running
Military High School. The first measurement was
contributed to measuring characteristics less, and
carried out at the beginning of the school year, and
body height, standing long jump, body mass index
second measurement at the beginning of the next
and body mass contributed to
measuring
school year, in all ages they were found progressive
characteristics more.
improvement in the morphological characteristics
and motor abilities.
Discussion
In many countries, the level of physical activity of
children and adolescents is not satisfactory (Hallal et
al., 2012) with regards to the recommended weekly
In most cases, the results of this study were as
level of at least
30 minutes of moderate physical
expected. Limitation of this study was the small
activity a day, five days a week (WHO, 2010; Haskell
number of students, because other teachers in this
et al., 2007; Pate et al., 1995), or a vigorous physical
school were not willing to participate in this study.
activity of at least 20 minutes, three times a week
The results from the first and the second
(Haskell et al., 2007). All the school children should
measurement, were processed by repeated measures
engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate to strenuous
ANOVA, indicated that the largest statistically
physical activity every day, according to the
significant difference was found in the body height
recommendations of The Centers for Disease Control
(0.000), body mass (0.000) and standing long jump
and Prevention and the American Academy of
(0.000), a smaller one in the running at 30 meters
Pediatrics
(2006). With technology progress,
(0.001) and the smallest one in the body mass index
motorized transport, watching TV and Internet
(0.007). In the second measuring they ran faster, on
expansion, it is becoming more and more difficult to
average for only 13 hundredths of a second. On
find time and motivation for exercise and maintaining
average, the students were
5.5cm taller,
6.7kg
the level of the fitness required for healthy living.
heavier, and their standing long jump was 12.5cm
Recent studies indicate that about
60-70% of
longer in the second measuring.
population in the developed countries does not
The students in our study were heavier, taller,
achieve the minimum level of physical activity
faster and jump better in the second measuring,
(Trost, Owen, Bauman, Sallis, & Brown,
2002).
meaning that they were more developed and skilled,
Krsmanovic, Simic, Batez, & Scepanovic
(2015)
observed through the
explosive
strength
found, among boys aged
17-18 years who are
manifestation. The relation between body mass and
engaged in physical activity at a high level (> 300
body height expressed through the body mass index
minutes per week) or at a moderate level (150 to 300
was mildly increased and indicated that the height did
minutes per week), a positive difference in the field
not follow the increase in body mass in case of
of motor abilities, compared with boys who engaged
students in our study. The differences were the result
in physical activity at a low level (<150 minutes per
of maturation, not the curriculum for the physical
week) or they not involved in any physical activity.
education. Conditions of realization of physical
The results of the study of Moore et al.
(2012)
education classes are limited in this school. The
indicate that persons fulfilling the minimum required
school has a hall for physical education with
levels of physical activity (150 minutes of moderate
insufficient exercise equipment. One week students
intensity per week) can expect to live
3.5 years
have physical education in the hall, and second week
longer, whereas those willing to exercise regularly at
they have physical education in a modified school
a moderately high to very high intensity level, about
hall way into the fitness center. Kovac, Leskosek and
300 minutes per week, can expect extra 4.2 years of
Strel (2007) examined differences in morphological
life. Physical activity has numerous positive effects:
characteristics and motor abilities of 16, 17 and 18
it strengthens the skeletal muscles, tendons and
years old students of different high schools, and came
ligaments, increases bone density, and all of that
to the conclusion that the majority of the variables
influences the proper growth and development of
27
EQOL Journal (2017) 9(1): 23-29
every individual’s body (Warburton, Charlesworth,
Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R.,
Ivey, Nettlefold, & Bredin, 2010). Exercising and
Haskell, W., & Ekelund, U. (2012). Global physical
activity levels Surveillance progress, pitfalls, and
sports are significant parts of childhood, and children
prospects. Lancet, 380(9838), 247- 257.
who establish regular habits for physical activity will
Haskell, W.L., Lee, I.M., Pate, R.R., Powell, K.E., Blair,
certainly continue with the physical activity in the
S.N., Franklin, B.A., … Bauman, A. (2007). Physical
adult age, too (Dahab & McCambridge, 2009).
activity and public health: updated recommendation for
adults from the American College of Sports Medicine
and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 116,
1081-93.
Conclusion
Kovač, M., Leskošek, B., & Strel, J. (2007). Morphological
characteristics and motor abilities of boys following
In this tempestuous period of growth and
different secondary-school programmes. Kinesiology,
development bodies of boys and girls are influenced
39(1), 62-73.
Krsmanović, B., Simić, M., Batez, M., & Šćepanović, T.
by numerous factors of contemporary living. Apart
(2015). Morphological characteristics and motor
from positive factors, there are many negative ones,
abilities of high-school boys with different levels of
such as hypokinesia, unhealthy “fast” food and lack
engagement in physical activities. Facta Universitatis,
of awareness of healthy life style.
13(2), 203-216.
Kurelić, N., Momirović, K., Stojanović, M., Šturm, J.,
The longitudinality in this survey provides certain
Radojević, Đ., & Viskić-Štalec., N. (1975). Struktura i
guidelines for the development of the studied abilities
razvoj morfoloških i motoričkih dimenzija omladine
and measures due to a short period between the two
[The structure and development of morphological and
measurements. Overall increase of the level of health
motor dimensions of youth]. Beograd: Institut za
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naučna istraživanja Fakulteta za fizičko vaspitanje.
of students. The greatest significance of the study is
Momirović,
K.
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Faktorska
struktura
reflected in the simplicity and accessibility of testing
antropometrijskih varijabli [The factor structure of the
and measurement, and in the option to compare the
anthropometric variables]. Zagreb: Institut za
present status of students with the previous
kineziologiju Visoke škole za fizičku kulturu.
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Moore, S.C., Patel, A.V., Matthews, C.E., Gonzalez, A.B.,
measures enables the study to be repeated in more
Park, Y., Katki, H.A.,… Gapstur, S. M. (2012). Leisure
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National Health Survey Serbia, 2006. (2007). Ministry of
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