Tabakov S.
EQOL (2009) 5-14
INDEX ANALYSIS OF TECHNICAL-TACTICAL
PREPAREDNESS OF OLYMPIC GAMES 2008 JUDO
CHAMPIONS (MEN)
Sergey Tabakov
Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports and Tourism, Moscow, Russia
Summary
In the present research parameters of technical-tactical readiness of Olympic Games-2008 champions in
judo (men) in all weight categories have been defined. More than 200 competitive fights in seven weight
categories were analyzed.
Keywords: modeling characteristics, efficiency, activity, productivity, variability, intensity, a level of
readiness.
Introduction
Now the competition in judo on the European and world scene is aggravated. The athletes from more than
20 countries of the world (more than from 100 countries participating in the world championship and a
little bit less on Olympic Games) apply for prize-winning places. In these conditions the experts who are
carrying out preparation of a national team, have a hard problem in perfection of the preparation system.
Achievements in sport in single combats are defined by wide enough spectrums of the
requirements that are much demanded to the athletes during the competitions. In this case it is almost
impossible to set an unequivocal estimation of the major factors that limit the level of achievements in
this group of kinds of sports [1, 9].
Data on technical-tactical readiness of some outstanding athletes of the world acting at various
competitions allow creating of a «model of the champion» to which the athletes must aspire during the
trainings and competitions [4, 5, 6].
The modeling characteristics are not only for their "prospecting" orientation, but also to carry out
a problem in one separate training employment management [8, 11].
These data allow the trainer and the athlete to make comparison on technical-tactical readiness of
the athlete and his opponents in the evident form, to define his strength and weakness. A number of the
parameters describing readiness of the athletes are defined, though it is also indirectly possible to estimate
the level of physical and psychological readiness [2, 3, 9, 10].
The Purpose of the Research
To define parameters of technical-tactical readiness of Olympic Games-2008 champions in judo (men) in
all weight categories.
Methods
Pedagogical supervision was spent For defining the modeling parameters of judoists competitive activity.
The video data with records of Olympic Games of 2008 was processed with application of shorthand
record of actions by specially developed symbols [5, 6]. Actions and estimations (quality of performance)
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Tabakov S.
EQOL (2009) 5-14
and a number of other parameters were fixed. Results of supervision were mathematically processed for
model quantitative parameters defining [5, 11].
Parameters of competitive activity were calculated: efficiency of an attack (Ea) and efficiency of
defense (Ed), general efficiency
(Eg), activity of an attack
(Aa), activity of defence
(Ad), general
variability
(Vg), variability of a productivity
(Vp), productivity of an attack
(Pa), productivity of
defense(Pd), the general productivity (Pg).
In this work following parameters of technical-tactical readiness of judoists were used for the first
time: factor of activity (Fa), factor of intensity (Fi), a level of readiness (L).
Efficiency is a correlation of successful attempts of technique performance to total number of
attempts in percentage. This index allows to estimate quantitatively the qualitative changes of technical -
tactical readiness, and that is expressed with the formula:
Ea = (x/X) х 100 %,
(1)
where Ea - an index of efficiency of an attack,
x - quantity of successful attempts (estimated),
X - total number of attempts of technical-tactical actions performance.
Ed = 100 % - (y/y) х 100 %,
(2)
where Ed - an index of efficiency of defense,
y - quantity of successful attempts of contenders (estimated);
Y -total of attempts of technical-tactical actions performance by contenders.
Eg = Ea + Ed
(3)
where Eg - an index of general efficiency,
Ea - an index of efficiency of an attack,
Ed - an index of efficiency of defense.
Activity is attempts quantity of performance of technical-tactical actions which are carried out by
the judoist on the average in time unit (a minute). For defining the activity of an attack (Aa) the quantity
of attack actions of the judoist on the average for a time unit (1 mines) is counted up:
Aa = X/ t,
(4)
where x - quantity of attempts of technical-tactical actions performance,
t - the quantity of time spent for fights.
Activity of defense (Ad) is quantity of defensive actions of the judoist on the average for a time
unit (1 min). The factor of activity (Fa), is the relation of activity of an attack and activity of defense.
Fa = Aa / Ad
(5)
where Fa - factor of activity,
Aa - activity of an attack,
Ad - activity of defense.
This parameter of model allows defining tactics selected by the athlete, his ability to be guided in
situations of a fight, ability to create convenient situations for technical-tactical actions performance. This
parameter always should be observed in combination with parameters of efficiency and productivity.
General variability (Vg) is defined by number of classific groups from which the judoist tried to
perform techniques in fights at competitions.
Productive variability (Vp) is defined by number of classific groups from which the judoist
successfully performed techniques (which brought an estimated result).
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Tabakov S.
EQOL (2009) 5-14
Productivity of an attack (Pa) is an index of quality of technical-tactical actions performance in an
attack. In judo it is expressed with the formula:
Pa = (10f1 + 7 f 2 +5 f 3 +3 f 4 +1 f 5)/m
(6)
where f1 - quantity of fights with result 10:0,
f 2 - quantity of fights with result 7:0,
f 3 - quantity of fights with result 5:0,
f 4 - quantity of fights with result 3:0,
f 5 - quantity of fights with result 1:0,
m - quantity of fights.
Productivity of defense (Pd) - is an index of quality of technical-tactical actions performance in
defense. In judo it is expressed with the formula:
Pd = (10q1 + 7 q2 +5 q3 +3 q4 +1 q5)/m
(7)
where q1 - quantity of the lost fights with result 10:0,
q2 - quantity of the lost fights with result 7:0,
q3 - quantity of the lost fights with result 5:0,
q4 - quantity of the lost fights with result 3:0,
q5 - quantity of the lost fights with result 1:0,
m - total quantity of fights.
General productivity (Pg) is defined by a difference of productivity of an attack and productivity
of defense:
Pg = Pa - Pd
(8)
For an estimation of a level of competitions the index of intensity offered by Svishchevym I. [9]
was used. Intensity of competitions is defined by quantity of "pure" victories, which is quantity of fights
finished with the score 10:0. The more "pure" victories, the more poor the level of participants is, and the
less of them, the higher is the competition for achievement of the clear superiority over the opponent.
Hence, the less fights finish with the score
10:0, the more intense the competitions are. The factor of
intensity (fi) has been offered:
Fi = g / i,
(9)
where Fi - factor of intensity of competitions;
i - quantity of pure victories (ippon);
g - total number of fights in the given weight category.
Product of general efficiency and factor of intensity allows to define a level of readiness (L) of
the athlete for the given competitions:
L= Eg х Fi
(10)
Where L- a level of readiness,
Eg - general efficiency,
Fi - factor of intensity of competitions in the given weight category.
The given index allows to compare indirectly levels of athletes readiness from various weight
categories taking into account the intensity of competitions in the given category and their own
parameters of technical-tactical readiness (efficiency of an attack and defense).
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Tabakov S.
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Results and Discussions
Indexes of technical-tactical readiness of the strongest judoists of the world (men), by results of
Olympic Games of 2008, are presented in tab. 1.
Table 1. Indexes of technical-tactical readiness of Winners of Olympic Games of 2008 (Beijing, China)
Weight
Surname, name (country) Ea
Ed
Eg
Aa
Ad
Fa
Vg Vp
Pa
СHOI
60
26
100
126
2,47
0.65
3,80
7
2
10,0
Min Ho (KOR)
UCHISHIBA
66
Masato (JPN)
31
97
128
1,95
1,45
1,35
9
3
8,0
MAMMADLI
73
35
100
135
2,56
1,15
2,23
7
4
10,0
Elnur (AZE)
BISCHIF
81
26
91
117
1,80
1,88
0,96
6
3
6,0
Ole (GER)
TSIREKIDZE
90
30
93
123
1,64
1,07
1,57
7
4
7,0
Irakli
(GEO)
NAIDAN Tuvshinbayar
100
22
86
108
1,97
1,24
1,59
6
2
6,0
(MGL)
ISHII
св.100
29
100
129
1,95
0,38
5,13
7
4
9,0
Satoshi ( JPN)
For an estimation of a level of a competition in various weight categories at judo tournament in
Olympic Games - 2008 program in Beijing (China) index of intensity is defined. Graphically values of a
level of intensity in weight categories are presented on pic. 1.
Pic. 1 Values of a level of intensity in different weight categories of Olympic Games - 2008 (judo, men)
Estimating a level of intensity of competitions
(pic.1) we can note essential difference of
parameters in weight categories up to 60, 66 and up to 81 kg (2,39; 2,32 and 2,3 - accordingly).
The parameter of efficiency testifies to a correlation of athlete’s readiness. Using this parameter it
is possible to predict the orientation of the further perfection of the motor skill. Indexes of efficiency of an
attack (Ea) of Olympic Games-2008 winners (pic.2, table 1) are close to modeling characteristics (30-40
%) practically for all champions. The lowest value of the given index is noted for the representative of
Mongolia (up to 100 kg) - 22 %, and not much below norm for representatives of Korea (up to 60 kg)
and Germany (up to 81 kg) - 26 %.
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Tabakov S.
EQOL (2009) 5-14
160
Ea
Ed
E, %
Eg
135
140
128
129
126
123
117
120
108
100
100
100
97
100
91
93
86
80
60
35
40
31
30
29
26
26
22
20
0
60
66
73
81
90
100
св.100
wight category, kg
Pic. 2 Efficiency of technical-tactical actions of Olympic Games-2008 champions (judo, men)
Parameters of efficiency of defense(Ed) of the champions (pic.2, table 1) are also close to
modeling characteristics (90-100 %). The lowest value of the given index is noted for the representative
of Mongolia (up to 100 kg) - 86 %.
350
L
296.96
301.14
300
269.1
232.2
250
207.69
196.8
193.32
200
150
100
50
0
100
90
св.100
73
81
66
60
wight category, kg
Pic. 3 Level of champions readiness in various weight categories on Olympic Games - 2008 judo
competitions (men) (Beijing, China)
Taking into account the calculated indexes of intensity of each weight category and indexes of
general efficiency of each champion indexes of a level of readiness (pic. 3) were calculated. Comparing a
rank of weight categories on factor of intensity on pic.1 and a rank of champions in weight categories on
a index of readiness on pic.3 it is possible to note an essential difference especially after the top three
athletes (categories up to 60, 66 and 81 kg).
At an estimation of activity of an attack (Aa) of leaders (pic.4, tabl.1) it is possible to note the
conformity of the given index to modeling values (> 2,0) for the majority of athletes. Georgian athlete’s
(up to 90 kg) index is below norm - 1,64. It is very important to consider the index of efficiency of an
attack in the ratio with activity of defense, i.e. how much the athlete dominates during the fight,
destroying intentions of the opponent. The clear picture of this advantage is given with factor of activity
(Fa).
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EQOL (2009) 5-14
Unique value of factor of activity - 5,13 - was shown by the athlete from Japan (over 100 kg).
Possessing not high activity of an attack (1,95) nevertheless, he destroyed any intentions of opponents,
and the average index of activity of an attack of his opponents in relation to him was only 0,38. The
athletes from Korea (up to 60 kg) and Azerbaijan (up to 73 kg) were distinguished by high indexes of
factor of activity - 3,8 and 2,23, accordingly.
Pic. 4 Index of activity, activity of an attack and defense of Olympic Games - 2008 champions (judo,
men)
The arsenal of athletes’ applied actions and its productivity are defined by indexes of variability
(pic. 5, tab. 1). The range of attack actions of champions was from 6 up to 9 technical groups.
Pic. 5 Variability of techniques of Olympic Games - 2008 champions (judo, men)
The low index of productive variability, that is that techniques which has brought advantageous
estimations, is shown by the champion in weight up to 60 kg (KOR) - 2 (the factor of profitability was
0,29). At first sight this fact represents lack of readiness of the given athlete. However at the analysis it is
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Tabakov S.
EQOL (2009) 5-14
necessary to consider efficiency of an attack and productivity of attacks of the judoist, and in this case
they have made: efficiency of an attack - 26 % (hardly less than norm) and productivity - 10 (the greatest
possible value). Thus, the athlete achieved victories, productively using techniques only from
2
classification groups.
Bringing an intermediate result, it would be desirable to note three athletes from the list of
Olympic Games - 2008 winners in judo. The indexes of technical-tactical readiness of these athletes are
resulted in table 2.
Table 2. Winners of Olympic Games o- 2008 (Beijing, China), whose indexes of technical-tactical
readiness are best correspond to modeling characteristics
Surname,
Weight
Ea
Ed
Eg
Aa
Ad
Fa
Vg Vp
Pg
name (country)
СHOI
60
26
100
126
2,47
0.65
3,80
7
2
10,0
Min Ho (KOR)
MAMMADLI
73
35
100
135
2,56
1,15
2,23
7
4
10,0
Elnur (AZE)
ISHII
Over 100
29
100
129
1,95
0,38
5,13
7
4
9,0
Satoshi ( JPN)
The color in table 2 notes values which are of interest for development of modeling indexes of
technical-tactical readiness. During competitions the given athletes have shown unique results of
readiness. Moreover, for all 5 fights champions in weight categories up to 60 and 73 kg have spent hardly
more than 7 minutes. All of the noted athletes possess 100 %-s' defense (i.e. have not passed any
technical action and have not received preventions), have high indexes of efficiency of an attack, factor of
activity and the general productivity.
For the comparative analysis of indexes of technical-tactical readiness of champions and the
athletes who have ranked at given competitions places from 2 up to 8, in the present work data for a
weight category up to 60 kg (which has the highest factor of intensity as it was marked earlier) (tabl.3) is
presented.
Table 3. Indexes of technical-tactical readiness of judoists of a weight category up to 60 kg, entered the
top 8 on Olympic Games - 2008 (Beijing, China)
Surname,
Weight
Ea
Ed
Eg
Aa
Ad
Fa
Vg Vp
Pg
name (country)
CHOI
1
26
100
126
2,47
0.65
3,80
7
2
10,0
Min Ho (KOR)
PAISCHER
2
ludwig (AUT)
14
92
106
3,46
1,35
2,56
8
3
4,6
SOBIROV
3
16
94
110
2,12
1,86
1,14
11
3
2,6
Rishod (UZB)
HOUKES Ruben
3
31
87
118
1,29
1,19
1,08
6
3
2,1
(NED)
DRAGIN Dimitri
5-6
10
92
102
2,34
2,81
0,83
12
5
1,4
(FRA)
YEKUTEL
5-6
11
88
99
1,65
1,67
0,99
8
3
-0,1
Gal (ISR)
WILL
7-8
17
79
96
1,44
1,44
1,00
6
3
2,5
Frazer
(CAN)
FALLON
7-8
20
87
107
1,67
1,59
1,05
8
4
1,8
Craig (GBR)
At an estimation of a level of efficiency of technical-tactical actions of athletes of a weight
category up to 60 kg, entered the Olympic Games - 2008 top 8 (judo, men) (pic. 6) the advantage of the
winner in the given weight category in all versions of this index is noticeable. The high index of
efficiency of an attack is shown by the world champion Houkes R. from Netherlands (corresponding to
modeling parameters), but low efficiency of defense (87 %) has not allowed him to rise above neither.
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140
126
Ea
Ed
E, %
118
Eg
120
110
106
107
102
100
99
94
96
92
92
100
87
88
87
79
80
60
31
40
26
20
16
17
14
20
10
11
0
1 KOR
2 AUT
3 UZB
3 NED
5 FRA
5 ISR
7 CAN
7 GBPlace
Pic. 6 Efficiency of technical-tactical actions of athletes of a weight category up to 60 kg, entered the
Olympic Games - 2008 top 8 (judo, men)
The similar tendency is kept and at the analysis of factor of activity, activity of an attack and
defense (pic. 7). Prevalence of finalists of the given weight category is noticeable. Index of activity of an
attack of the athlete from France who won the 5 place - 2,34 - stands out of the general range. But in
spite of high activity of an attack the given athlete allowed his opponents to attack himself actively what
has neutralized his advantage and factor of activity mattered less than 1 - 0,83.
4
3,8
3.46
Aa
Ad
Fa
3.A
2.81
3
2,47
2.56
2.34
2.5
2,56
1.86
2
1.67
1.651.67
1.59
0,38
1.35
1.19
1.44
1.5
1.14
1.29
1.08
0.99
5,13
1.05
0.83
1
0.5
0
0
Place
1 KOR
2 AUT
3 UZB
3 NED
5 FRA
5 ISR
7 CAN
7 GBR
Pic. 7 Index of activity of factors, activity of an attack and defense of athletes of a weight category up to
60 kg, entered the Olympic Games - 2008 top 8 (judo, men)
Estimating a level of productivity of technical-tactical actions of athletes of a weight category up
to 60 kg, entered the Olympic Games-2008 top 8 we should notice the advantage of the winner in the
given weight category (pic. 8). It is possible to note a negative index of the general productivity (-0,1) the
athletes from Israel who has won the 5 place. Among the other athletes of the top eight indexes of
productivity of an attack surpassed productivity of protection.
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Tabakov S.
EQOL (2009) 5-14
P
Pa
Pd
Pg
10
10
10
8
6.6
6
5
4.6
4.3
4.4
3.8
4
4
3.2
3.3
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.5
2.6
2
2.1
1.7
1.7
1.8
1.4
2
0
0
-0.1
1 KOR
2 AUT
3 UZB
3 NED
5 FRA
5 ISR
7 CAN
7 GBR
Place
-2
Pic. 8 Productivity of technical-tactical actions of athletes of a weight category up to 60 kg, entered the
Olympic Games-2008 top 8 (judo, men)
Conclusion
1. As a result of research the basic indexes of technical-tactical readiness of Olympic Games - 2008
champions in judo competitions among men have been defined: efficiency of an attack and efficiency of
defense, general efficiency, activity of an attack, activity of defense, general variability, productive
variability, productivity of an attack, productivity of defense, general productivity.
2. In the given work indexes of technical-tactical readiness of judoists have been defined for the
first time: factor of activity, factor of intensity of competitions and a level of readiness of athletes.
3. The modeling indexes presented above can serve as a reference point in training construction.
Thus it is necessary to take into account that these indexes can benefit in construction of one training, or a
week cycle. Attempts to follow the modeling indexes in each training fight cannot to bring benefit. These
parameters are reference points for regulation of training. They are a measure of "centrality" for training
optimization.
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