EXERCISE AND QUALITY OF LIFE
Volume 8, Issue 1, December 2016
UDC 796.012.1-053.4:796.1
THE INFLUENCE OF DANCING AND GAME CONTENTS
ON PRESCHOOLERS’ MOTOR ENGAGEMENT
Živorad Marković1 and Dragoljub Višnjić2
1Faculty of pedagogical science, University of Kragujevac, Serbia
²Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade, Serbia
Abstract
The goal of this study was to examine the influence of dancing and game contents on
preschoolers’ motor engagement in each phase, as well as total engagement in directed motor
activities. The study was realized in the first term of 2014/2015 school year. 12 activities with
dancing contents and 12 activities with moving games were monitored. The duration of directed
motor activity phases was as follows: the first A phase (introductory) - five minutes, the first B
phase (preparatory) - five minutes, the second phase (main) - fifteen minutes and the third phase
(final) - five minutes. The time of the activity (engagement) was measured by random choice of
one of the children, who was monitored during the directed activity. The observed child did not
know that he/she was an object of measurement. Data processing included descriptive statistics
and t-test for small independent samples. The parameters of descriptive statistics indicate longer
engagement of children in the first A phase, the third phase and total engagement with dancing
contents. Game contents influenced higher engagement in the first B phase and the second phase.
Game contents influenced statistically significant difference in relation to dancing contents in the
third phase. The total engagement with the dancing contents was 725 seconds, with game
contents 707 seconds. The t-test does not indicate statistically significant difference between
dancing and game contents in terms of preschoolers' total engagement. The results indicate that
the activities with dancing and game contents are very useful in working with preschoolers.
Keywords: dance, game, engagement, directed motor activity, preschoolers
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Introduction
Preschool education is the first level of basic education in educational system and it is
necessary to make it available to all children. For preschoolers pedagogical work in educational
institutions (preschools) is planned and realized depending on preschoolers’ age.
The basis of the programme of preschool education for children aged three to seven
which starts from a child as a physical, noetic, social and affective human being that is active in
the process of upbringing, was established in 1996, and started in 1997/1998 school year. As the
basis of the programme the unique and whole concept was worked out in two models - model A
and model B.
Buncic (2005) compared the effects of physical education, realized in experimental
groups according to the model A and model B, for three years and the effects of physical
education in control group which was not included in institutional physical education programme
before experimental treatment. The best effects in the development of general motor abilities for
children were for children for whom the physical education was realized by the model A.
Physical activity represents one of the most important factors for proper growth and
development of a young organism. Physical education takes important place between determined
activities, which is organized trough different forms of work, for example: directed activities,
morning exercises, picnics, walks in nature, free activities etc. Physical education as planned and
creative activity with clearly defined goals starts in institutional education of the Republic of
Serbia with preschool education, and it ends with secondary education. The interest for the
effects of physical education is significant for the profession of the tutor because mostly woman
do this job in our country.
There is an attitude in EU countries that well trained teachers who work in appropriate
(fair) conditions, the most important precondition of high quality education. Preschool education
is a valuable investment in future. Enough assets must be supplied in the education budget. The
states have to make an effort in order to secure equality and work with all children especially for
those in inadequate surroundings and children with special needs.
Most cited things about the problem of weakness of physical education are the following:
insufficiently organized and planned work with preschoolers, smaller possibility of educators to
realize complex tasks of physical education and uneven and very often insufficient material
conditions of preschools for the realization of physical education.
Physical activity of youngsters is not at the satisfying level by its quantity and ven less by
intensity. The situation is especially alarming in urban areas. Physical activity of preschoolers is
important because of integral development aspect, biological and health aspect and educational
aspect (Djordjic, 2002).
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Inefficiency of physical education is primarily manifested in weak influence on
transformation of motor abilities, because of the small density of exercising, i.e., short active
time of exercising (Markovic and Ignjatovic, 2015). The research indicates that boys are more
active than girls
(Hinkley et al.,
2007). Bigger engagement is seen in primary school age
(Markovic and Ignjatovic, 2015) and secondary school age, as well as higher sport technical
knowledge (Sekeljic et al., 2013).
Apart from games which represent basic means in work with preschoolers, dancing
activities are also applied (theme dancing, dancing with music, Serbian folk dances, dances of
other peoples and disco dance).
Dancing themes are always with music. Music has positive effects and it influences
psychologically during hard training
(Mohammadzadeh et al.,
2008). Positive effects of
exercising with music on maximal consumption of oxygen and variables of general coordination
and coordination in rhythm indicate practical application of exercising with music with the goal
of proper dosage and realization of the aim and task of physical education (Alpert et al., 1990;
Mandaric, 2001; Stanisic et al., 2008) as a significant improvements in strength, flexibility and
balance (Kostic et al., 2002).
The idea for this work came from the research of Jankovic (2013), in which it was stated
that children are motorically engaged 17,07 minutes during activity Markovic and Ignjatovic
(2015) in which for certain boys the engagement was higher than 50% of absolute time and it
was 15.26 minutes.
This research had an aim to research the influence of dancing and game contents on
motor engagement of preschoolers during each phase, as well as the total engagement on
directed motor activities.
Methods
This research was realized in preschool
“Decja Radost” in Svilajnac in the first term of
2014/2015 school year. In this institution preschool age children are included in preschool
education with the programme of half day and whole day stay, according to model A (Markovic
and Sekeljic,
2008). In order to determine the influence of different contents on motor
engagement of children in phases and total engagement 12 activities with dancing and contents
and 12 activities with game contents were monitored.
The time of the activity (engagement) was measured by random choice of one of the
children and its monitoring by the measurer during directed activity. In the processing of data
apart from descriptive statistics, t-test was applied for small independent samples. Certain phases
of directed motor activities are structured with the following absolute duration: the first A phase
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(introductory) - five minutes, the first B phase (preparatory) - five minutes, the second phase
(main) - fifteen minutes and the third phase (final) - five minutes.
Results
By the insight in the Table 1 we can see that the values of duration of motor engagement by
phases and total engagement are in relatively possible and expected limits.
Table 1. Descriptive parameters for certain phases of directed activities
in relation to dancing contents
Phases
Мin
Max Mean
Sd
Skewness Kurtosis
Introductory (I A phase)
69.00
213.00
156.75
48.60
-.480
-1.190
Preparatory (I B phase)
102.00
201.00
137.91
29.37
1.203
1.154
Main phase
264.00
480.00
355.75
60.71
.543
.804
Final phase
24.00
135.00
74.41
38.18
.162
-1.434
Total motor engagement
605.00
892.00
724.83
100.12
.488
-1.181
For the first A phase (introductory) active time of exercising with dancing contents is
156.75 seconds, and with game contents it is 123.58 seconds. The difference of 33.17 seconds is
in favor of dancing contents. For the first B phase (preparatory) game contents influenced
average longer motor engagement in relation to dancing contents with 17.09 seconds. In the main
phase of activity, average motor engagement with dancing contents is 355.75 seconds, and with
game contents 378.58 seconds. The difference of 22.83 seconds is in favor of game contents.
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Table 2. Descriptive parameters for certain phases of directed activity
in relation to game contents
Phases
Мin
Max Mean
Sd
Skewness Kurtosis
Introductory (I A phase)
61.00
167.00
123.58
34.07
-.729
-.213
Preparatory (I B phase)
90.00
242.00
155.00
14.28
.436
-1.081
Main phase
279.00
484.00
376.58
62.14
.037
-.925
Final phase
26.00
81.00
49.75
18.02
.353
-.473
Total motor engagement
522.00
842.00
706.91
91.70
-.389
1.232
The difference of 24.66 seconds in final phase was acquired by dancing contents in
relation to game contents. A bit longer time of total motor engagement on activities from only
17.92 seconds was achieved with dancing contents. Standard deviation with the value of 60.71
seconds for dancing and 62.14 seconds for game contents is the biggest in the main phases of the
activity. The difference of minimal and maximal values is close and at dancing contents it is 216
seconds, and for game contents it is 205 seconds (Table 1 and Table 2).
All the results are normally distributed, with the value of scunis in interval from 1 to +1,
except the results of B phase for dancing contents. Kurtosis is in the results for all phases, as well
as for the whole motor engagement with dancing and game contents, less than three, which
indicates that the results are homogeneous and that the curve is leptokurtic.
Table 3. Significance of differences of duration of motor engagement
by phases and total motor engagement in relation to contents
Phases
t
df
Sig. (2-tailed)
Introductory (I A phase)
1.936
22
.066
Preparatory (I B phase)
-1.028
22
.315
Main phase
-.910
22
.372
2.023
22
.055
Final phase
.457
22
.652
Total motor engagement
The values of t-test indicate that in the introductory first A phase of directed motor
activity there is no statistically significant difference of duration of motor engagement in relation
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to dancing and game contents. The achieved level of statistical significance is p=.066.
Statistically significant difference was not stated in the preparatory phase of the activity. The
level of statistical significance is p=.315.In the main phase the level of statistical significance is
p=.372 indicates that there are no differences in duration of motor engagement in relation to
contents. Statistically significant differences do not exist even in the final phase of directed
motor activity (p=.055) Minimal differences in the total motor engagement of 17.92 seconds in
favor of dancing contents were not sufficient for influencing statistically significant differences
(p=652).
Disscusion
By the analysis of minimal and maximal values of dancing contents it can be seen that for
minimal value of motor engagement in the first A phase in relation to absolute time of duration
of the first A phase the use is only 23.0%, and for maximal value it is 71.0%. For the first B
phase the difference is smaller and minimal use is 34.0%, and maximal is 67.0%. The situation is
worrying by the insight in minimal percentual use of only 29.33% and maximal of 53.33% in the
main phase of engagement with the dancing contents of 12.48 minutes (40.26%) and maximal
engagement was 14.86 minutes (49.53%).
For dancing contents minimal values of motor engagement in the first A phase in relation
to absolute time of the duration of the first A phase is only 27.00%, and for maximal value it is
55.66%. For the first B phase minimal engagement is 30.00%, and maximal 80.66%. The
situation is very worrying by the insight in minimal percentual engagement of only 31.00% and
maximal of 53.77% in the main phase. The smallest engagement in relation to absolute duration
in the final phase, where the minimal engagement is only 8.66%, and maximal 27.00%.
The smallest motor engagement for dancing contents (24.80%) and game contents
(16.58%) is in the final phase of directed activity. Insufficient engagement can be explained by
not respecting of time articulation of certain phases, so that very often the main phase is
connected with final phase and in this way the tasks of the final phase are not realized.
The highest motor engagement with dancing contents after the phase A (introductory is
for the first phase B
(preparatory), where the average time of engagement
62.08%, and
maximally 76.66%. For game contents the highest motor engagement is in the first B phase
(preparatory), where the average motor engagement is 51.66%. Satisfying motor engagement in
the first A and the first B phase is conditioned by frontal form of work, in which children
together with their educator perform natural forms of movement, and then complex exercises of
forming. The thinkg that encourages is the attitude of teachers about the more complex
preparation of locomotors apparatus of exercises of shaping for dancing and game contents.
Small motor engagement in the main phase of directed activity is 39.52 for dancing and
49.06 for game contents can be explained by the choice of the activity item, method, insufficient
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application of methodical- organization forms, big number of children in a group, inadequate
material and spatial conditions, insufficient number of equipment and theoretical and practical
knowledge of the educators who perform planned activities.
Total motor engagement of 12.48 minutes (40,26%) with dancing and 11.78 minutes
(39.27%) with game contents is insufficient for correct growth and development of a young
organism. A small quantity of theoretical and sport technical knowledge do not lead to accepting
of physical education, but influence disinterest for the contents of physical education teaching in
older primary school and secondary school grades (Sekeljic et al., 2013) Mesaros Zivkov and
Markov (2008) recommend the engagement of physical education teacher, as an expert
consultant and in immediate work with preschoolers, and for educators organizing of seminars.
The goal of this work was to research the influence of dancing and game contents on
motor engagement of preschoolers during each phase as well as the total engagement in directed
motor activities. 12 activities with dancing contents and 12 activities with game contents were
monitored. Descriptive indicators show that average longer active time of exercising in the first
phase A, final and total motor engagement on activities with dancing contents. Dancing contents
influenced longer motor engagement in the first B phase and main B phase of directed activity.
The values of t-test for small independent samples indicate that small descriptive differences did
not influence statistically significant differences in all phases of activities in relation to motor
engagement.
The general statement indicates that in the work with preschoolers both dancing and
game contents can be equally used with adequate material -spatial and teaching facilities and
careful and responsible preparation of the educator for each activity.
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