EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Expert model of the most important methodical exercises for fast
skiing turns teaching
Danijela Kuna1• Sanjin Dzajic2• Marko Mastelic1
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access
Abstract
basic characteristics of effective lessons. This
The purpose of this research was to establish the
research is a foundation for future modeling which
expert model of learning and evaluation the most
has made a selection of significant errors and
important methodical exercises for teaching short
exercises for their elimination, and their hierarchical
skiing turns in advanced skiing school. Participants
classification.
were 20 skiing experts from different states. After
the experts model was established, experts selected 5
Keywords expert model ski demonstrators short
most important methodical exercises for teaching
skiing turns
short skiing turns. According to with the goal of the
research, total frequency sum of expert choice of the
most important methodical exercises has been used
Introduction
(O-observed; E-expected), while the difference
between frequencies of expert evaluation has been
The instruction of alpine skiers is a complex process
tested by non-parametric Chi-square test
(χ²) and
conditioned by numerous endogenous and
statistic meaning of differences
(p). By natural
exogenous factors. Firstly, it depends on the specific
selection, the ranking was made, and selection of the
mountain conditions in which it is performed, level
most important methodical exercises for teaching
of
skiing
foreknowledge, motivation and
short skiing turns. After data processing, statistical
anthropological status of the subjects. In addition, it
differences were significant in frequencies in which
depends on the quality and the nature of the used
experts choose most important methodical exercises
skiing equipment, but mostly on the level of skiing
(c2=17.30; p=0.14) while the differences between
education, experience and way of teaching used by
the values of most important methodical exercises
skiing experts. Learning and performing specific
were not established (c2=2.15; p=0.91). Statistical
skiing knowledge is a complex process that depends
differences based on nationality were not
on the variable conditions of social environment. It
established. Based on the obtained results it can be
can be defined as the process of systematic adoption
concluded that the experts in spite of the structural
and perfection of specific structure of dynamic
differences and specificity within each ski schools
movement, with the aim of efficient performance in
are equally recognized and valued those most
various conditions and types of ski slopes. All the
important methodical exercises who contain the
mentioned factors are the result of specific divisions
and formations of different skiing school program
models (Feinberg-Densmore, 2000; N. Jurković &
D. Jurković,
2005; John,
2006; Murovec,
2006;
danijela.kuna@gmail.com
Lešnik & Žvan,
2010). The skiing school
programme enables and accelerates the process of
1
University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Croatia
acquiring skiing knowledge. The basis of the
programme facilitates the adoption of various
2
High school Konjic, Konjic, Bosnia and
techniques of alpine skiing, and secures the gradual
Herzegovina
progress of skiing learning. In relation to the
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
mentioned and with the aim of rational performance
The experts performed the multiple extraction of
and lower energy consumption, the skiing elements
methodological exercises variables, in coordination
and methodological exercises should succeed one
with the author of the research, via e-mail. After
another in a logical methodological order. Good
defining and acquiring all the propositions of basic
skiers have high level of specific skiing knowledge,
methodological exercises for fast skiing turns
what is recognised as the ability of successfully
teaching, the expert model of fast skiing turns
performing characteristic skiing elements, as well as
teaching was formed. After that, the task of
conquering different kinds of snow terrains. Thus,
examiners was to choose
5 most important
they require lower levels of energy in order to
methodological exercises for fast skiing turns
perform any of these elements than skiers of lower
teaching, forming an expert model of the most
knowledge level. High quality and professional help
important methodological exercises for fast skiing
of teachers or trainers is the key factor in the process
turns teaching.
of acquiring and perfecting skiing knowledge. In
The sample of variables for fast skiing turns
order to secure adequate teaching, skiing teacher or
teaching consisted of 13 exercises (N=13): OTFT
trainer should have a high level of skiing knowledge
(one turn), PTHFST (parallel turn from hill into fast
and skills, and also understand methodologic and
ski turn), FSTSD (fast ski turn in downhill slope),
didactic principles of training process and the basis
HOHFT (hands on hips), HOTFT (hands on thighs),
of psychological approach of working with people.
AIFT (antenna imitation), ESPFT
(extended ski
Since human being is the subject, there is a great
poles), SPBB
(ski poles behind back), SSPAT
diversity among potential students, regarding the
(switching ski poles around trunk), FTUSB (fast ski
level and degree of anthropological abilities and
turns with unlaced ski boots), SBPUS (stabs of both
characteristics they possess. Therefore, it is very
ski poles under skis), IFTSB (imitation of fast ski
important that skiing experts know and understand
turns in ski boots), FTWJ (fast ski turns with jumps).
the dynamics of learning process of motor, that is,
skiing knowledge, and that they apply the adequate
With the aim of forming the expert model of the
teaching methods. Based on the research results
most important methodological exercises for fast
(Kuna, 2012) that formed the expert model of the
skiing turns teaching, and the testing of the
most important skiing elements of the advanced
difference between the frequencies of expert choice,
skiing school programme, among which fast skiing
the following values were calculated: observed
turns was present, an idea of forming the
frequencies
(OF)
- total sum of expert choice
methodological procedures of their teaching
amount frequency, expected frequencies (EF), non-
occurred. In relation to the mentioned, the following
parametric Hi
- square test
(χ2), and the
research aims were set: a) forming the expert model
corresponding empirical level of significance
(p).
of the most important methodical exercises for fast
With the aim of determining the hierarchical
skiing turns teaching, b) determining the difference
classification of the most important methodological
among skiing experts of different degree of skiing
exercises for fast skiing turns teaching, the following
education.
vales were calculated: range sum (ΣR) of variable
range, Kruskal-Wallis test
(H-test), and the
corresponding empirical level of significance (p).
Method
Results
Elite skiing experts participated in the formation of
the expert model of the most important
methodological exercises for fast skiing turns. They
Based on the obtained values of testing the statistical
were the representatives of Slovenian, Croatian and
significance of differences between the frequencies
Bosnian-Herzegovinian skiing assistants, members
of expert choice of 5 most important methodological
of assistant teams with years-long skiing experience,
exercises for fast skiing turns teaching (c2=17.29;
education and experience in the work with the
p=0.14), it was observed that there was no
Alpine skiers of different levels of skiing
statistically significant difference between the
foreknowledge. Twenty examinees were included in
frequencies of expert choice of 5 most important
the research, of which 7 Croatian, 7 Slovenian and 6
methodological exercises. In other words, the
Bosnian-Herzegovinian state skiing assistants.
formed model of methodological model for fast ski
turns teaching included those exercises with specific
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
importance and contribution to the teaching alpine
important methodological exercises for fast skiing
skiers, not singling them out on the statistically
turns teaching was formed based on the sum of the
significant level. Model consisting of
5 most total frequency of expert choice.
Table 1. Frequencies of expert choice of 5 most important methodological exercises for fast skiing turns teaching
Methodological exercises of short
OF
EF
skiing turn
OTFT
4
7.15
PTHFST
14
7.15
FSTSD
10
7.15
HOHFT
9
7.15
HOTFT
8
7.15
AIFT
10
7.15
ESPFT
7
7.15
SPBB
5
7.15
SSPAT
3
7.15
FTUSB
4
7.15
SBPUS
4
7.15
IFTSB
6
7.15
FTWJ
9
7.15
χ2= 17.29 p = 0.14
Legend:
Observed frequencies (OF) - total sum of expert choice amount frequency, expected frequencies (EF), non-parametric Hi -
square test (χ2), and the corresponding empirical level of significance (p)
The FPTHFST (parallel turn from hill into fast
fast turns technique while holding his hands on hips.
ski turn) methodological exercise had the highest
When performing this exercise the skier
level of importance. While performing the exercise
concentrates on the acquisition and harmonisation of
the skier, after performing several parallel turns
characteristic skiing movements that influence the
from the hill, shortens the radius of the turn, and
success of advancing and skis speed control, as well
emphasizes the sideways and axial movement of the
as the harmonious connection between several turns
body with minimal trunk rotation, passing into the
of regular circular shape. The fourth methodological
dynamic skiing technique, performing fast skiing
exercise is the AIFT (antenna imitation) where the
turns. In this way, he gradually adapts to the
skier learns the fast turns technique holding the ski
technical characteristics of the dynamic movement
poles perpendicularly in extension. It is assumed that
structures, characteristic of fast skiing turns. It is
this exercise helps the skier to easily restore the still
assumed that the gradation of acquiring and
upper part of the body, in perpendicular
mastering main characteristics of the fast turns
positionregarding the line of movement. Because of
technique enabled by this methodological exercise
the outstretched arms, the skier achieves and
were the main reason for classifying this exercise
maintains the central position on the skis more
within the model of the most important. The second
easily, developing a sense of regular skis pressure
methodological exercise in this model is the FSTSD
control and coordination of skiing movement, by
(fast ski turns in sloping downhill), where the skier
passing from one turn to another. The fifth
performs fast turns in the slantwise direction
methodological exercise within the expert model of
downhill. This exercise is important because while
the most important ones is the FTWJ (fast turns with
performing fast turns in the slantwise direction
jumps), where the skier, passing from one turn to
downhill, the skier learns how to adjust regular
another, performs a jump. The vertical, circular and
diameters of turns, in relation to the slope degree.
sideways knee movements in turns are especially
Besides this, the performance of one turn in relation
important for their efficient performance. In
to the other is facilitated, due to the slope degree,
comparison with the remaining methodological
enabling better movement speed control and
exercises defined according to the expert model,
developing sense of rhythm and coordination. The
FTWJ is the most complex exercise regarding the
third most important methodological exercise is
coordination, and therefore the skiing teachers
HOHFT (hands on hips), where the skier learns the
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
should know how to apply it in concordance with the
exist in the actual programmes of Croatian,
possibilities and abilities of the athlete they train.
Slovenian and Bosnian-Herzegovinian school and
the methods of fast turns teaching, the statistically
Inspection of the Hi square test values and the
significant differences in the choice of most
statistical significance indicators (Table 2) showed
important methodological exercises were not
no difference among experts, regarding the
determined.
nationality. In spite of structural difference that do
Table 2. Differences in the choice of most important methodological exercises for teaching fast skiing turns
Methodological
exercises of short skiing
CRO SLO BIH χ2
p
turn
OTFT
0.86
2
1
0.60
0.74
PTHFST
5.14
3
5
0.66
0.72
FSTSD
3.43
2
4
0.68
0.71
HOHFT
2.57
3
3
0.04
0.98
HOTFT
2.57
2
3
0.20
0.91
AIFT
3.43
3
3
0.04
0.98
ESPFT
2.57
2
2
0.10
0.95
SPBB
0.86
3
1
1.77
0.41
SSPAT
0.86
2
0
2.11
0.35
FTUSB
0.86
2
1
0.60
0.74
SBPUS
0.86
2
1
0.60
0.74
IFTSB
2.57
2
1
0.68
0.71
FTWJ
1.71
2
5
2.28
0.32
Legend:
Observed corrected frequency of Croatian experts (CRO), observed corrected frequency of Slovenian experts (SLO),
observed corrected frequency of Bosnian experts (BIH), non-parametric Hi - square test (χ2), and the corresponding empirical
level of significance (p)
Based on this, it can be claimed that the expert
Discussion
group that can be characterised as homogeneous,
disregarding the differences between skiing schools
they represent, formed the expert model of the most
Based on the acquaintance with the basic
important methodological exercises for fast turns
characteristics of motor learning, great practical and
training. By forming the expert model of
methodological knowledge while working with
methodological exercises for teaching fast turns, and
skiers of different skiing knowledge,
20 elite
by selecting the most important ones, we contribute
Croatian, Slovenian and Bosnian-Herzegovinian
to the better understanding of relations and defining
skiing experts first defined, and then evaluated the 5
basic methodological procedures in the alpine skiers
most important methodological exercises that
teaching process. The results obtained in this
facilitate the acquisition of fast turns technique.
research open up a possibility of conducting future
Based on the determined statistically significant
research that could define the characteristic errors
differences between the frequencies of expert
and the most efficient exercises for their correction,
evaluation of the most important methodological
in the process of fast turns acquisition. In addition, a
exercises in teaching fast turns, the model of
need for constructing measuring instruments
exercises that was distinguished by their importance
occured, instruments that could enable higher
and applicative value was identified. In spite of the
selection quality, and the choice of training modality
structural differences and specificities of skiing
and training exercises in the process of educating
schools that skiing experts represent, the differences
alpine skiers of different ages and levels of skiing
between them were not determined.
knowledge.
It can be concluded that the examinees formed a
homogeneous group in defining the dynamics and
fast turns teaching process. The values of this paper
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
are the new and original research approach, which
Europapress holding i Ferbos inženjering.
secured crucial information on the systematic mode
Kuna, D. (2012). Formiranje ekspertnog modela likova
osnovne i napredne škole skijanja.
[In Croatian]
of acquiring specific skiing knowledge. The
Expert model of learning and valuation the most
information regarding the methodological laws on
important skiing skills of basic and advanced skiing
organising the fast ski turns process obtained
school. Proceedings Of The
3rd International
through experiments are extremely important for the
Conference Contemporary Kinesiology. Đ. Miletić et
kinesiological practice of alpine skiing. This
al. (Eds). Split : Faculty Of Kinesiology University Of
research opens the routs towards the future research
Split, Croatia. 145-153.
that could detect characteristic errors, exercises for
Kuna, D. (2013). Ekspertni model usvajanja skijaških
their correction and conduct empirical tests of the
znanja. [In Croatian] Expert model of gaining skiing
formed model on different samples of examinees.
skills
(Doctoral dissertation). Split: Faculty Of
Kinesiology University Of Split, Croatia.
Lešnik, B., & Žvan, M. (2010). A turn to move on -
Alpine skiing
- Slovenian way, Theory and
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