EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Physiological responses during arm and leg aerobic power tests in elite
female judokas
Tatjana Trivic1• Cristina Casals2 • Patrik Drid1
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access
Abstract
and AT, with statistically significant correlations in
The aim of this study was to compare physiological
the arm crank, and close to significance on the
responses during arm and leg aerobic power tests.
treadmill. On the other hand, arm crank and
treadmill tests presented different results concerning
Ten elite female judokas of the Serbian National
aerobic capacity. However, our female judokas
Team participated in the study. In addition to the
interestingly presented similar VO2max results
Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT), maximal oxygen
during both aerobic tests, which highlights some
uptake
(VO2max) and anaerobic threshold
(AT)
judo-specific demands on the upper-body aerobic
were determined using an arm crank ergometer and
fitness.
a treadmill. Body fat percentage was estimated by
bio-impedance.
Keywords Arm crank
Treadmill
Anaerobic
The VO2max was only 3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1 higher
threshold
on the treadmill than in the arm crank (p<0.03), the
AT was also higher on the treadmill test (8.6 l∙min-
1, p=0.005). Nevertheless, the SJFT results were
Introduction
significantly correlated only with the maximal heart
rate during the treadmill test
(r=0.77, p<0.01 for
Judo has been characterized as a high-intensity
index; r=-0.73, p<0.02 for total throws). Body fat
intermittent combat sport, consisting of many
percentage was correlated with VO2max (r=-0.67,
different techniques and actions employed during a
p<0.05) and AT in the arm crank test
(r=-0.88,
match (Drid et al., 2012). High level of strength and
p=0.001).
coordination is needed to overcome the adversary
through rapid execution of technical maneuvers
The maximal oxygen uptake was not statistically
throughout the match (Drid et al., 2010). In addition
correlated with the SJFT results in elite female
to faster recovery process after high-intensity
judokas. However, judokas who had higher maximal
intermittent
activity
associated to
aerobic
heart rate during the treadmill test, showed a worse
performance
(Franchini et al.,
2011; Drid et al.,
judo-specific capacity on the SJFT. Female judokas
with higher body fat seem to have lower VO2max
2015), some evidence exists for higher values of
maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in judokas
who are able to win points in the decisive moments
of bout. Furthermore, those judokas were able to re-
synthesis creatine-phosphate fasterin gastrocnemius
ttrivic@yahoo.com
muscle compared to judokas who win points earlier
1
in the match and have better performance on
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and
Wingate test for lower extremities (Gariod et al.,
Physical Education
1995).
2
Department of Physiology, Institute of Food
Nutrition and Technology, Biomedical Research
Drop in aerobic performance of lower extremities
Centre, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of
in judokas prior to main competition has been found
Granada, Granada, Spain
in study of Franchini, Cassio de Moreas Bertuzzi,
21
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
Takito, & Kiss (2009), in addition to increase in
trial. The test was considered completed when the
aerobic performance of the upper body during the
oxygen uptake reached plateau and the respiratory
same period. Authors concluded that the
and ventilator quotients reached reference values.
performance of the upper body is more important
The gas analyzer was calibrated after five athletes
than performance for the lower part of the body, and
completed tests with gas mixture of known oxygen
consequently, the aerobic capacity of the upper body
and CO2 concentrations (20.9% O2, 0.03% CO2 and
was more relevant than the same test for lower body.
16.0% O2, 5.0% CO2, respectively).
Furthermore, Jagelo, Wolska, & Smulski
(2009)
Second VO2max was estimated by a method of
analyzed correlation between International Physical
extrapolation after a standardized sub maximal test
Fitness Test (IPFT) and Special Judo Fitness Test
on the arm cycle ergometer (Monark, Sweden) along
(SJFT) for three groups of female judokas. Highly
with telemetric monitoring of heart function (Polar,
skilled judokas were characterized by distinct and
Finland) after a five day period.
more diverse direct relationship between indicators
of general and specific physical preparation
Specific Judo Performance was assessed through
compared to judokas 13 - 15 and 16 - 18 year olds.
SJFT test. SJFT is divided into three active periods
Other research, conducted on Brazilian Olympic
(A=15 s; B and C=30 s) with 10 s rest intervals
judo team
(Franchini et al.,
2005) showed no
between them. During each period, athlete that is
significant differences in aerobic power between
being evaluated (tori) throws two partners (uke A
first team and reserves. On the other hand, Drid et
and uke B; separated from each other by a distance
al.,
2009 found significant differences between
of 6 m) as many times as possible using the one-arm
judokas of A and B Serbian national team.
shoulder throw
(ippon-seoi-nage) technique. All
participants (tori, uke A, and uke B) involved with
The aim of this study was to compare
the test should possess similar height and weight
physiological responses during arm and leg aerobic
characteristics. Immediately following, and one
power tests in elite female judokas and correlation
minute after completion of the three active periods,
between oxygen uptake and the special judo fitness
the tested subject’s heart rate is measured
test in female judokas.
(Sterkowicz, 1995). Afterwards, subsequent analysis
in the number of throws completed during the active
periods, along with heart rate response to the active
Method
periods, and an index calculation was conducted.
The SJFT Index was calculated as follows:
Subjects
Index = (Final HR + HR1 min) / Throws (1)
Ten elite female judokas of the Serbian National
Where: Final HR
= heart rate registered
Team participated in the study.
immediately after the test, HR1 min = heart rate
Procedures
obtained
1 minute after the test, and Throws
=
number of throws completed during the test.
Anthropometric Profile was assessed in all
participants through body mass (Model 3306 ABV;
Statistical Analyses
Avery Ltd., Crosswell, United Kingdom) and body
Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation.
height
(Holtain Ltd., London, United Kingdom),
The Shapiro-Wilks statistic was used for checking
whereas body fat percentage was estimated through
the normality of distribution. The Pearson or
manual bioimpedance
(MaltronBioScan
920-2,
Spearman correlation tests were applied where
Edinburgh, United Kingdom).
appropriate. Comparisons between treadmill and
Aerobic Profile was estimated through treadmill
arm ergometry were performed using the Wilcoxon
and an arm crank ergometer test, with maximal
test. The data were analyzed using the statistical
oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold
package SPSS, PC program, version 20.0 (IBM Inc.,
(AT) determined. For treadmill test, ventilatory and
USA).
metabolic indices were measured at rest for 1 minute
and then for another minute at a 5 km.h-1speed;
afterwards workload incremented progressively
Results
starting at 7 km.h-1at a rate of 0.5 km.h-1 every 30
seconds until exhaustion (CPET, COSMED, Rome,
Physical characteristics and the Special Judo fitness
Italy) with constant 2% inclination throughout the
test results are presented in table 1.
22
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
Table 1. Physical characteristics and Special Judo Fitness Test
Body fat percentage was correlated with VO2max
results in elite female judokas
(r= -0.67, p<0.05) and AT in the arm crank test (r=
0.88, p=0.001).
Weight (kg)
64.89±11.19
Height (cm)
166.50±7.15
45
Body Fat (%)
22.92±5.34
40
35
Index
13.89±1.59
30
Total number of throws
25.70±1.63
SJFT
25
Final HR (bpm)
188.00±9.08
12
17
22
27
32
HR 1 min after (bpm)
166.80±15.31
Body Fat (%)
Comparison between results obtained on arm
crank and treadmill test are presented in Table 2.
Figure 3. Correlation between VO2max and % of body fat
The VO2max was higher on the treadmill than in the
arm crank (p<0.03), the AnT was also higher on the
33
treadmill test (p=0.005).
28
Table 2. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2max) and
23
anaerobic threshold (AnT) in different ergometry tests
18
Arm crank Treadmill
12
17
22
27
32
HR max (bpm)*
183.00±8.79
188.10±6.42
Body Fat (%)
VO2max (ml∙kg-1∙min-1)*
34.29±6.71
37.66±4.29
AnT (l∙min-1)*
25.30±3.35
33.88±4.17
Figure 4. Correlation between arm crank AnT and % of body
* means p<0.05
fat
The SJFT results were significantly correlated
only with the maximal heart rate during the treadmill
Discussion
test
(r=0.77, p
<0.01 for index, Fig
1; r=-0.73,
p<0.02 for total throws, Fig 2).
Higher values for all observed variables were
obtained on treadmill compared to arm crank,
205
suggesting a higher cardiovascular stress during
195
treadmill test. These results are understandable when
185
observing larger muscle groups involved in running
175
on treadmill compared to arm crank test involving
only upper body muscles.
11
13
15
17
ObtainedVO2max and AnT, on both arm crank
SJFT index
ergometer and treadmill, were not statistically
correlated with the SJFT results in elite female
Figure 1. Correlation between HRmax and SJFT index
judokas. This is not in line with previous researches
(Franchini et al., 2005; Franchini et al., 2007) that
205
showed correlations of the aerobic fitness and the
195
SJFT in male judokas. This could imply a need for
185
additional investigation for substantial conclusions.
175
According to the results of the present study,
22
24
26
28
30
VO2max and AnT results do not seems to represent
useful assessment tool in determining the specific
Total number of throws during the SJFT
performance of female judokas. Almansba et al.
Figure 2. Correlation between HRmax and SJFT total number of
(2010) obtained similar results in male judokas, and
throws
noted that VO2max is highly sensitive to changes in
training loads.
Body fat percentage was correlated with
VO2max and AT in the arm crank test (Fig 3-4).
23
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
Female judokas who had higher maximal HR
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