Journal of Science in Sport
Volume 6, Issue 2, December 2014
Dea Karaba Jakovljević and Damir Lukač
Anthropometric characteristics and body fat mass in elite basketball
Anita Šolaja, Milan Šolaja and Borislav Obradović
Differences in parameters of bone mineral density between elite athletes and non
athletes ……………..………………………………………………………………………...14
Milana Katanić, Miroslav Smajić, Alen Kapidžić, Branka Protić-Gava and Ksenija Bošković
The impact of material and technical conditions and methods of organisation on the
motor status of adolescents …………………………………………………………………24
Tatjana Vlahović
PHYSICAL EDUCATION………………...………………………………………………..32
Volume 6, Issue 2, December 2014
UDC: 796.323.2-055.1:572.512
Dea Karaba Jakovljević and Damir Lukač
Medical Faculty Novi Sad, Department of Physiology
Correspondence to:
Dea Karaba Jakovljević
Department of Physiology
Faculty of Medicine,University of Novi Sad
Mail: dea.karaba-jakovljevic@mf.uns.ac.rs
The present study was designed to evaluate the anthropometric parameters, body composition
and anaerobic power components of elite male and female basketball players and compare
them in relation to gender and specific sport demands. The study group consisted of 43 elite
national level athletes: 22 male basketball players (aged 20.3±2.92) and 21 female players
(aged 19.5±2.96). The significant differences were noted in fat body mass, triceps and lower
body region skinfolds, wigh higher values in females, while higher values of forearm, upper
arm and waist circumference were noted in males. Comparing Wingate test parameters,
higher values of absolute anaerobic power, explosive power, and absolute anaerobic capacity
were recorded in male players, while there was no significant difference in relative anaerobic
power, and relative anaerobic capacity values between genders. Morphometric profile in elite
sport should accompany physiological profile in order to monitor improvements during
training process and sport performance.
Key words: body composition, physical activity, athletes, anthropometry, body mass index.
Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the world, played at verying levels of
competence among different nations. Sucesfull performance in basketaball, requires technical
skills, energetic capacities, motivation, and specific anthropometric characteristics. During
last decades there is growing interest among sports medicine scientists in assessing
performance of elite athletes in relation to their body composition. The human body is
composed of different tissues with more or less metabolic activity. Muscle mass is essential
for optimum performance in all aspects of elite sport, and fat body mass is also needed for
optimal physiological function. Fat tissue is providing energy for long duration physical
activities, but exceeding amount of body fat mass is associated with decrement in
performance. Therefore optimal body composition with appropriate ratio of musce to fat mass
in essential for achieving maximal performance in elite sport. Body composition assessment is
part of total physiological profile of an athlete (Wilmore,1982), and it is widely accepted that
adequate attributes are important in various sports
2012). Morphometric
characteristics are specific for each sport depending on the demands and type of the activity
(aerobic, anaerobic).Basketball can be defined as an intermittent sport, requiring repeated
bouts of intense actions followed by short periods of recovery (Ben Adbelkrim, 2007). It is
also a game of continuously changing movements, needing explosive muscle power and
developed both energetic capacities (Maud, 2006).
Elite athletes in this sport should have the ability to generate speed, but also high
aerobic capacity and significant anaerobic power release during the game. Although aerobic
capacity has been more extensively analyzed in literature, corresponding data for anaerobic
profiles are still lacking, particularly in elite sport.
In order to obtain high level of physical performance, specific body composition
should also be monitored and evaluated in basketball. There were several studies on the body
composition and anthoropometric parameters on basketball players (Pelin, 2009, Sallet 2005,
Gaurav 2010), indicating that the morphological characteristics in elite athletes in specific
discipline differ from general population and other sport branches: for instance, basketball
players are taller and heavier than players of other games, with longer limbs and relatively
low values of body fat mass and high values of lean body mass.
Knowing the morphological profile of basketball players is very important for
maximal performance, the aim of this study was to evaluate antropometric characteristics and
anaerobic abilities of elite players and compared them according to gender. Data obtained
could be used to help coaches and sports medicine specialists to monitor their physical
performance and in the process od talent selection. Evalutation of anaerobic performance is
also relevant to athletes since anaerobic parameters can be improved through specific
conditioning regiments.
Forty three elute national level basketball players were enrolled in the study. They
were divided into two groups: twenty-two male basketball players (20.30±2.92 yrs), and
twenty one female basketball players (19.5±2.96 yrs). Anthropometric measurements (body
mass, body height, skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences), were measured and calculated
in all subjects. The nutritional level was defined according to the body mass index values
(WHO, 2000), obtained by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by the square of the
person’s height in meters.
The anthropometric evaluation included 3 types of measurements: basic (body height,
body mass, body mass index), body circumferences (chest, flexed and relaxed upper arm,
forearm, waist, hip, mid-thigh, calf) and skinfold thickness (chest, subscapular,midaxillary,
biceps, triceps, abdominal,suprailiac, supraspinal, front thigh, medial calf), according to the
International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (International Society for the
Advancement of Kinanthropometry, 2001).
The body height was measured by Harpender anthropometer (Holtain Ltd, Croswell,
UK), with the precision of 0.1 cm. The body fat mass (FAT%) and total body mass were
measured by Tanita bioimpedance analyzer TBF-310 (Tanita Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). The
skinfold thicknesses were measured by using Harpenden caliper (Holtain Ltd, Croswell, UK)
with the precision of 0.2 mm. All skinfold thicknesses were measured three times and the
final value was the average between the three measurements.
All participants also performed Wingate Anaerobic Test, for assessment of anaerobic
power components (Bar-Or 1987). The basic parameters were obtained: peak power, or
anaerobic power (AP) is highest power output observed during the first few seconds of test;
anaerobic capacity (AC); and explosive power (EP) as new parameter obtained in Laboratory,
reflecting explosive component of muscle contraction. All parameters were recorded via
software installed in PC, which was directly connected with the ergometer machine and then
analysed, in absolute and relative values.
Table 1 Basic anthropometric characteristics of basketballball players and nonathletes
Body mass Age
Basketball players males
Basketball players females
Table 1 describes the basic anthropometric characteristics and sport experience of
male and female basketball players. Males were taller and significantly heavier, and there was
no difference in age and sport experience between genders.
Table 2 Body mass index (BMI) references for adults (WHO, 2000
Nutrition level
< 18.5
Normal weight
Reference values of BMI are shown in Table 2 (WHO,2000).
Subjects with BMI <18.5kgm-2 were considered underweight, normal weight was
defined as BMI between 18.5kgm-2 and 24.9 kgm-2, and overweight was defined as values
above 25kgm-2. According to reference values for adults, BMI of volleyball players is above
the values defined as normal weight.
Table 3. Body fat level, body mass index, and skinfold thickness values of basketball players
Basketball players males
Basketball players females
BF (%)
12.3 ± 2. 84
BMI (kg/m2)
23.9 ± 2.50
Skinfold thickness (mm)
Front thigh
Medial calf
Body fat level, body mass index, and skinfold thickness values of basketball players
were presented in Table 3.
The results indicated statistically significant (p ” 0.05) differences between the male
basketball players and female players in body fat mass.Significant
” 0.05) gender
differences were found in values of triceps, abdominal, supraspinal, suprailiac, thigh and calf
Female basketball players in general are found to possess more deposition of
subcutaneous fat in triceps area and in the lower regions of body (supraspinal, suprailiac,
thigh and calf skinfold) as a sex specific distribution, while male players had greater value of
midaxillary skinfold.
Table 4. Values of body circumferences
Basketball players males Basketball players females
Circumferences (cm)
Upper arm relaxed
Upper arm flexed
Values of body circumferences were presented in Table 4. Significantly higher values
were recorded in males in forearm, upper arm and waist circumference, compared to female
basketball players.
Table 5. Values of Wingate test parameters in investigated groups
c power
e power
e power
c power
l players
l players
Values of Wingate test parameters in investigated groups are shown in Table 5. When
analyzing the Wingate test parameters of examined athletes, we can observe significantly
higher values of absolute anaerobic power, absolute and relative explosive power, and
absolute anaerobic capacity, while there was no significant differences in relative anaerobic
power, and relative anaerobic capacity between genders.
Data of morphologic parameters in the field of sports medicine revealed that optimal
body structure in athletes is associated with improvements in functional abilities and athletic
performance (Kerr, 1995). In order to obtain informations of body composition parametes
optimal for particular sport, anthropometric measurements are of great importance since the
large amount of data can be collected with a non-invasive methodology and inexpensive
equipments (Gaurav, 2010, Massuca, 2011).
Regular physical activitt leads to specific body composition changes, and individuals
involved in programmed, dosed and continous physical activity
(athletes) differ in
athrompometric characteristics from general population. In elite athletes, these characteristics
could be specially favorable for specific sport demands. In this terms, the anthropometric
profile of basketball players is proved to be one of the crucial factors for maximal
performance. As shown in previous studies, adequate body composition and body fat mass
contribute to optimal performance in basketball (Carter, 2005, Gaurav 2010). Optimal body
structure is needed for specific demands of this sport, with developed lean body mass and the
least possible percentage of body fat. This is in accordance with our results, where basketball
players are tall, relatively lean subjects with low fat mass percentage. When analyzing
anthromopometric parameters, the importance of body heigh is commonly accepted in team
sports such is basketball. It is documented that specific morphological characteristics, such is
body height and lean body mass have a positive influence on successful competition in
basketball (Carter, 2005).
According to our results, male players are taller, heavier with higher BMI and
significantly lower values of fat body mass, compared to females who in general are found to
possess more deposition of subcutaneous fat in triceps area and in the lower body regions.
Differences were also noticed in the values of waist, forearm and upper arm circumference,
with significantly higher values in males. Our results also indicate greater lean body mass in
male basketball players, contributing to higher values of BMI.
Although body composition assessment is of importance for general and athletic
population, there are no adequate reference values for elite athletes (Ackland 2012, Rodriquez
2009, Malina 2007), especially in certain parameters such is BMI. The body mass index
(BMI; weight/height2) is parameter that is widely used in adult populations such as an
internationally recognized definition of overweight and obesity (Kovač, 2012). Body mass
index of our investigated groups is in the area of normal weight according to the established
literature standards, and it did not show any significant differences among genders.
Interestingly, females showed lower values of BMI compared to males, but higher body fat
percentage than male players, greater lean body mass in males. Anthropometric characteristics
of our selected athletes has been found to be similar to values previously investigated in our
country and across top leagues in Europe (Vucković 2009, Cormery, 2008, Ostojić 2006,
Sallet 2005).
According to the results of many studies in sports medicine, the body mass index has
low level of validity when assessing body composition in athletes. This parameter only
reflects ratio of body weight to height but does not discriminate body fat mass from lean body
mass, which contributes significantly to body composition. There should be more population
specific values, since higher BMI in athletes could lead to misinterpretation of this parameter
in athletes.
On the other hand, body fat mass percentage is of the greater importance than body
mass index, as excess adipose tissue acts as dead mass in activities where body mass must be
lifted repeatedly against gravity (Reilly 2000). It is generally accepted that lower relative
body fat is desirable for successful competition in most sports. Our results of fat body mass
percentage in basketball players are in accordance for appropriate body fat range for both
genders in this sport (Wilmore, 1983).
When comparing anthropometric characteristics to recent data on basketdball players
from other countries, Kalinski (2002) showed similar values of anaerobic performance, and
morphometric characteristics in Polland elite basketball player. In the study on morphometric
profile of Bosnian elite basketball players, similar values of anthrompometric parameters
were recorded (Poškić, 2014). These specific morphometric characteristics of basketball
players have been linked with playing positions and individual player success (Angyan 2003,
Coelho, 2008), team success (Carter 2005) and performances (Jakovljević, 2011).
When analyzing anaerobic profile of elite athletes, it has been suggested that success
in many sport games relies on high anaerobic capacity, not only aerobic abilities (Hoffman,
1996) . Basketball is sport with specific demands at high level including intermittent bouts of
high intensity interrupted with periods of submaximal effords. This type of activity requires
both aerobic and anaerobic energetic systems. Also explosive power for jumps, kicking, runs
at different intensities is of the great importance in basketball. When evaluating anaerobic
profiles of investigated groups, differences were found in all Wingate parameters, with
significant higher values in absolute anaerobic power and absolute explosive power and
absolute anaerobic capacity for male basketball players, while there was no difference in the
relative anaerobic power and relative anaerobic capacity. These discrepances are due to
differences in anthropometric characteristics, since males are heavier, taller athletes with more
active muscle mass and less fat body mass compared to females, as gender specific attributes.
In conclusion, body composition assessment in elite sport provides usefull information
for creating conditioning programs throughout a season at all levels of competition. The
amount of muscle, adipose tissue, fat-free component and their relationships could affect
maximal performance, and evaluation of these parameters should accomplish physiological
profile of athletes. Also, analysis of anaerobic abilities should be periodicaly applied to elite
athletes in order to monitor improvements in training process.
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Volume 6, Issue 2, December 2014
UDC: 796.012.1:612.751
Anita Šolaja, Milan Šolaja and Borislav Obradović
Faculty of sport and physical education - University of Novi Sad
Correspondence to:
Anita Šolaja
Address: Bulevar cara Lazara 7, 21000 Novi Sad
Telephone: 06505350054
E-mail address: anitasolaja@yahoo.com
The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in parameters of bone mineral
density in elite track and field athletes and sedentary male controls, respectively non-athletes.
The research included 15 athletes who are members of the national junior track and field team
of Serbia and 15 non-athlete boys, aged 17 to 19 years. Sahara (Hologic, Inc., MA 02154,
USA) clinical sonometer was used for assessing bone density. The parameters of bone
mineral density were measured, Speed of sound (SOS), Broadband ultrasound attenuation
(BUA), Bone mineral density (BMD) and Width of the heel bone, as well. T-test for two
independent groups confirmed that there is statistically significant difference between elite
track and field athletes and non-athletes in all measured parameters (p < 0.05). The results of
this study confirm the significant effects of practicing track and field events on increasing
bone mineral density and preventing osteoporosis.
Keywords: Bone density, calcaneus, male, track and field, sedentary controls
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines osteoporosis as a condition in which
the bone mass decreases by 2.5 standard deviations from those in young and healthy people of
the same sex (WHO, 1994). Disorder of bone remodeling, in which newly formed bone is
being formed then it breaks down old bone previously, is the main cause of osteoporosis.
Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and bone loss leads to fragility and increased
risk of fracture (Drinkwater, 1994). The result of decreased bone strength is increasing the
risk of fracture, even due to slight injuries. Osteoporosis occurs in both sexes and can occur at
any age. For both sexes, the risk of osteoporosis increases with age, while the risk of
osteoporotic fracturesis the highest in people over 80 years (Delmas & Fraser, 1999).
Although aging is inevitable, mechanical stresses that occur during exercise, are
proven to alter or delay the reduction of bone mass associated with the aging process (Smith
& Gilligan, 1991). The first study that addressed this hypothesis showed that athletes
subjected to high load activities had 10-20% higher bone mineral density (BMD) compared to
the controls (Nilsson & Westlin, 1971). Today, there is compelling evidence indicating that
physical activity affects the skeleton and the BMC and BMD in an anabolic way (Hind &
Burrows, 2007).
Maximum of bone mass is acquired during the second and the third decade of life.
Active practice of sport in the years in which the peak of bone mass is obtained, can lead to
adaptive changes that improve the architecture of the bones through increased density and
improved geometric properties of bone (Tenforde & Fredericson, 2011).
Research done on athletes shows that they have higher bone mass than non-athletes
and that the bone density increases during the periods of intensive training (Bajić Z, Ponorac,
Rašeta, & Bajić Đ, 2010). Exercise studies have also shown which type of exercise confers
maximal anabolic effects on the skeleton. Skeletal load that includes a dynamic load, a load
with a high magnitude, a high frequency load, a fast load and a load with unusually
distributed strains provide the most pronounced osteogenic stimuli (Lanyon, 1992; Rubin &
Lanyon, 1984; Turner, Woltman & Belongia, 1992). Researches has shown that BMD is the
highest in athletes who participate in high- impact exercise, defined as activities involving
running, jumping and weight lifting (Bennell, Malcolm, Khan, Thomas, Reid, Brukner et al.,
1997; Pettersson, Nordström, Alfredson, Henriksson-Larsén & Lorentzon, 2000; Yung, Lai,
Tung, Tsui, Wong, Hung & Qin, 2005; Andreoli, Monteleone, Van Loan, Promenzio,
Tarantino & De Lorenzo, 2001). These results suggest that the type of sport activity may be
an important factor in achieving a high peak bone mass and reducing osteoporosis risk
(Andreoli et al., 2001).
Furthermore, it is very important for elite athletes to have healthy bones, because low
BMD significantly increases the risk of fractures at minimal traumas (stress fracture) (Kohrt,
Bloomfield, Little, Nelson & Yingling, 2004). These types of injuries are common in certain
populations of athletes and represent between 0.7% and 20% of all sports medicine injuries
seen in medical clinics (Matheson, Clement, McKenzie, Taunton, Lloyd-Smith & MacIntyre,
1987; Chen, Tenforde & Fredericson,
2013; Harrast & Colonn,
2010; McCormick,
Nwachukwu & Provencher, 2012). The current understanding is that maximizing peak bone
mass is key to preventing osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures
(Heinonen, Sievanen,
Kannus et al., 2000; Courteix, Lespessailles, Peres et al.,1998).
The present study is aimed at assessing the characteristics of the bones of high-
performance, top level competitive athletes, using calcaneal ultrasound. This study
investigates the differences in parameters of bone mineral density in highly trained athletes, in
elite track and field athletes and sedentary male controls.
The survey was conducted on a sample of 30 boys, aged 17 to 19 years. Of that
number, 15 boys are members of the national junior track and field team of Serbia, and
another 15 are high school students who are not engaged in sports. The first part of the survey
was conducted in April 2015, at the official training camp for a national track and field
selection in Bar (Montenegro). The second part of research is also conducted in April 2015, at
the Central School of Economics in Niš.
The sample of variables in this study reflected the four variables for assessment of skeletal
status, ie. Bone density:
1) The width of the take-off leg calcaneus (Width, in mm),
2) Sos - Speed of sound: take-off leg calcaneus (SOS, in m/s),
3) Bua - Broadband ultrasound attenuation: take-off leg calcaneus (BUA, in dB/MHz),
4) Bmd - Bone mineral density: take-off leg calcaneus (BMD, in g/cm).
Ultrasound bone densitometry was performed in each subject. The device used was
Sahara (Hologic, Inc., MA 02154, USA) clinical sonometer that uses non-ionizing ultrasound
for assessing bone density. The results obtained by this method are sufficiently correlated to
the other methods and from other body locations (Faulkner, McClung, Coleman, Kingston-
Sandahle, 1994). This device was used because it is easily portable, so each subject could be
scanned quickly, without disturbing their daily routine training/competition. Measurements
were taken while the subjects were seated with the dominant foot resting in the heel bath of
the instrument. Patient examination time was short, with a measurement time (excluding
patient positioning) of less than ten seconds. Quantitative parameters describing the speed and
attenuation of the sound waves in the heel are measured. The device is calibrated daily using a
model (phantom). All scans were performed by the same technician. Following parameters
were measured: SOS, BUA, BMD as well as Width of calcaneal bone of take-off leg of
The obtained data were processed in the statistical package SPSS
(20.0). The
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess normal distribution of the variables. The
standard tests for normality and homogeneity of variance found that these assumptions were
valid. Differences between two groups were analyzed with T-test for two independent groups,
track and field athletes and non-athletes. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.
The principal inclusion criteria to this study were age, sex, sport history (minimum
five years of active sports occupation in track and field) and absence of diseases. The survey
did not include the hormonal status of respondents nor trial of the use of supplements in the
diet, rather than that it focused on the differences in the above mentioned parameters of bone
mineral density between the top athletes, ie. track and field athletes and non-athlete male
On the base of the values of the statistical parameters of normality of the curve
distribution of data, it was observed that the distribution of the data of all the variables applied
in this study does not deviate significantly from the normal distribution.
For the variable Width of heel bone, value of t-test was 2.32 at a significance level of
0.03, which indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between athletes and
non-athletes. The sign of t-test indicates a direction of determined difference. A negative
value means the difference in favor of another group, ie. non-athletes, who obtained better
result, respectively they had a greater width of the heel bone (calcaneus) in relation to the
track and field athletes. This confirms the value of arithmetic means of groups that is higher in
non-athletes (M=43.87 mm) with a standard deviation of 2.83 mm compared to track and field
athletes (M=41.36; SD=3.11) (Graph 1).
Graph 1. The value of the arithmetic mean width of the heel bone athletes and non-athletes.
The value of the t-test for a variable SOS was
5.46 at significance level of 0 .000
which is less than the selected limit value of 0.05. Based on the values of the results, it can be
concluded that there is a statistically significant difference in the rate of penetration of the
ultrasonic waves (SOS) through the heel bone. As the results are expressed in seconds, the
ultrasonic wave penetrated faster into the heel bone of non-athletes (M=1554.87; SD=19.49)
at a statistically significant level, in comparison to the track and field athletes (M=1602.95;
SD=27.95) (Graph 2).
Graph 2. The value of the arithmetic mean of penetration rate of ultrasonic waves through the
heel bone (SOS) in athletes and non-athletes.
For the variable BUA, the values of significance of t-test (t = 3.87) showed that there
is a statistically significant difference
(p= 0.001) in the speed of the ultrasonic wave
attenuation through the heel bone. In the group of track and field athletes, weakening of the
wave through the calcaneus was greater than in the group of sedentary controls, which can
be recognized on the base of the arithmetic mean value of this parameter
SD=20.12) compared to the sedentary group (M=75.45; SD=11.58) (Graph 3).
Graph 3. The value of the arithmetic mean in weakening of the ultrasonic wave when passing
through the heel bone (BUA) in athletes and non-athletes.
According to the results obtained for BDM parameter, it can be concluded that the
group of athletes has increased estimated mineral density of the calcaneus (M=0.72, SD=0.12)
compared to the control group (M= 0.54; SD=0.08) (Graph 4). The differences between these
two groups was at significant level (p=0.000).
Graph 4. The value of the arithmetic mean of the estimated mineral (eBDM) density of the
calcaneus in athletes and non-athletes.
The main goal of this study is to examine and compare the bone mineral density
parameters of elite track and field athletes and inactive controls. The results of our study are
consistent with the results of numerous studies between athletes and non-athletes (Arasheben,
Barzee & Morley, 2011; Kaštelan, Kraljević, Kardum, Kasović Dušek, Protulipac et al., 2007;
Suominen, 1993; Karlsson, Johnell & Obrant, 1993a; Karlsson, Johnell & Obrant, 1993b;
Nikander, Sievanen, Heinonen & Kannus, 2005; Karlsson, Hasserius & Obrant, 1996) and
support the fact that athletes have greater bone mineral density than sedentary controls. In our
study elite athletes had higher values of all measured parameters of BMD at statistically
significant level (p<0.03) compared with sedentary male controls, except width of the heel
bone. In the existing literature, the authors found neither research that explicitly compares
data width of the calcaneus between athletes and non-athletes, nor research that compares
width of calcaneus with correlation of bone mineral density.
The second measured parameter in our study was the Speed of sound, and it refers to
the division of transmission time of the sound waves by the length of the body part studied
(Kok-Yong & Ima-Nirwana, 2013). Measurements of SOS parameter revealed statistically
significant difference between the group of track and field athletes and sedentary male
controls (Graph 2).
The third measured bone density parameter was BUA - Broadband attenuation of
sound which refers to the slope between attenuation of sound signals and its frequency.
Attenuation occurs because the energy is absorbed by the soft tissue and bone when the sound
waves travel through them (Kok-Yong & Ima-Nirwana, 2013). Weakening of the ultrasonic
signal as it passes through the heel bone is bigger in athletes than non-athletes, in this study
(Graph 3).
The level of significance showed that elite track and field athletes had greater BMD at
statistically significant level comparing to inactive controls (Graph 4). Generally, athletes
have higher BMD than age-matched sedentary controls (Suominen, 1993; Karlsson, Johnell &
Obrant, 1993a; Karlsson, Johnell & Obrant, 1993b; Nikander, Sievanen, Heinonen & Kannus,
2005; Karlsson, Hasserius & Obrant,
1996). Several cross-sectional studies have
demonstrated higher BMD among athletes who engage in weight bearing and impact sports
when compared to non-athletes (Davee et al., 1990; Stewart & Hannan, 2000). It is more
effective to provide a higher intensity stimulus than simply to extend the duration of lower
intensity loading activities (Bennell et al., 1997; Marcus, 2001), as it is in practicing track and
field events.
In the 12 month longitudinal cohort study, Benell et al. (1997) came up with results
that track and field athletes also had higher mineral bone density than non-athletes. They were
comparing bone mass and bone turnover in elite and subelite track and field athletes and less
active controls, aged 17-26 years. Baseline results showed that power athletes had higher
regional BMD at lower limb, lumbar spine, and upper limb sites compared with controls (p <
0.05). Endurance athletes had higher BMD than controls in lower limb sites only (p < 0.05).
Besides that, Whittington et al. (2009) concluded that throwers had greater BMD than non-
athletes and most other athletes. Furthermore, the cross-sectional study of Andreoli et al.
(2001) showed that athletes, especially those engaged in high-impact sports, had significantly
higher total BMD than controls. These results suggest that the type of sport activity may be an
important factor in achieving a high peak bone mass and reducing osteoporosis risk (Andreoli
et al., 2001).
Low BMD significantly increases the risk of fractures at minimal traumas (stress
fracture) (Kohrt et al., 2004). In a meta-analysis, Moayyeri et al. (2012) confirmed that SOS,
BUA, SI (stiffness index) and QUI (quantitative ultrasound index) significantly predicted
fractures after reviewing 21 independent studies. Bone stress injuries result from chronic
repetitive training and can range from a stress reaction to a cortical fracture (Matheson et al.,
1987). Stress fractures occur in several different bones. The distribution of stress fractures
differs according to activity. The tibia is reported to be the most frequently injured bone in
runners (Hulkko & Orava, 1987; Ha, Hahn, Chung, Yang & Yi, 1991), followed by the fibula,
metatarsal and pelvis (Matheson et al., 1987). Fifteen percent of all stress fractures occur in
runners (Matheson et al., 1987) accounting for 70% of all of their injuries (Orava, 1980). This
study results can be helpful in the prediction of fractures for both coaches and athletes
because this type of injuries are common in athletes (Knobloch, Schreibmueller, Jagodzinski,
Zeichen, Krettek, 2007; Brukner, Bradshaw, Kahn, White, Crossley, 1996; Øyen, Klungland,
Torstveit, Sundgot-Borgen, 2009).
This study supports previous researches, indicating a positive effect of high-impact
sports, as well as track and field, as one of that type of sport, on BMD in elite athletes.
Andreoli, A., Monteleone, M., Van Loan, M., Promenzio, L., Tarantino, U. & De Lorenzo, A.
(2001). Effects of different sports on bone density and muscle mass in highly trained athletes.
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density in collegiate female athletes. Journal of American Board of Family Medicine,
Bajić, Z., Ponorac, N., Rašeta, N. & Bajić, Đ. (2010). Uticaj fizičke aktivnosti na kvalitet
kosti. Sportlogia, 6 (1):7-13.
Bennell, K. L., Malcolm, S. A., Khan, K. M., Thomas, S. A., Reid, S. J., Brukner, P. D.,
Ebeling, P. R., & Wark, J. D. (1997). Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes,
endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study. Bone, 20(5), 477-484.
Brukner P, Bradshaw C, Kahn KM, White S, Crossley K. Stress fractures: a review of 180
cases. Clin J Sport Med. 1996;6(2):85-89.
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athletes: epidemiology, treatment, and prevention. Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal
Medicine, 6(2):173-181.
Courteix, D., Lespessailles, E., Peres, S. L., et al. (1998). Effect of physical training on bone
mineral density in prepubertal girls: a comparative study between impactloading and non-
impact-loading sports. Osteoporosis International, 8:152-8.
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density in college woman. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 5(3), 245-250.
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preventing osteoporosis? Research Quarterly Exercise in Sport, 65:197-206.
Faulkner, K. G., McClung, M. R., Coleman, LJ. & Kingston-Sandahle, E.
Quantitative ultrasound of the heels: correlation with densitometric measurements at different
skeletal sites. Osteoporosis International, 4: 42-7.
Ha, K. I., Hahn, S. H., Chung, M. Y., Yang, B. K. & Yi, S. R. (1991). A clinical study of
stress fractures in sports activities. Orthopedics, 14:1089-1095.
Harrast, M. A. & Colonno, D. (2010). Stress fracture in runners. Clinics in Sports Medicine,
Heinonen, A., Sievanen, H., Kannus, P., Oja, P., Pasanen, M. & Vuori, I. (2000). High-impact
exercise and bones of growing girls: a 9-month controlled trial. Osteoporosis International,
Hind, K. & Burrows, M. (2007). Weight-bearing exercise and bone mineral accrual in
children and adolescents: a review of controlled trials. Bone, 40:14-27.
Hulkko, A. & Orava, S. (1987). Stress fractures in athletes. International Journal of Sports
Medicine, 8:221-226.
Karlsson, M. K., Hasserius, R. & Obrant, K. J. (1996). Bone mineral density in athletes during
and after career: a comparison between loaded and unloaded skeletal regions. Calcified Tissue
International, 59 (4): 245-248.
Karlsson, M. K., Johnell, O. & Obrant, K. J. (1993). Bone mineral density in professional
ballet dancers. Bone and Mineral, 21 (3): 163-169.
Karlsson, M. K., Johnell, O. & Obrant, K. J. (1993). Bone mineral density in weight lifters.
Calcified Tissue International, 52 (3): 212-215.
Kaštelan, D., Kraljević, I., Kardum, I., Kasović, M., Dušek, T., Protulipac, J. M., et al. (2007).
The effects of the level of physical activity on calcaneal ultrasound measurements: bone
properties of medical and physical education students. Collegium Antropologicum, 31:701-4.
Knobloch, K., Schreibmueller, L., Jagodzinski, M., Zeichen, J. & Krettek, C. (2007). Rapid
rehabilitation programme following sacral stress fracture in longdistance running female
athlete. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, 127, pp.809-813.
Kohrt, W. M., Bloomfield, S. A., Little, K. D., Nelson, M. E., Yingling, V. R. (2004).
American College of Sports Medicine. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand:
Physical activity and bone health. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(11), 1985-
Kok-Yong, C. & Ima-Nirwana, S.
(2013). Calcaneal Quantitative Ultrasound as a
Determinant of Bone Health Status: What Properties of Bone Does It Reflect? International
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and Mineral Research,7(Suppl 2):S369-75.
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Matheson, G. O., Clement, D. B., McKenzie, D. C., Taunton, J. E., Lloyd-Smith, D. R.,
MacIntyre, J. G.American Journal
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Clinics in Sports Medicine, 31(2):291-306.
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Stress Fractures in Norwegian Female Elite Athletes. Journal of Sport Science and Medicine,
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Volume 6, Issue 2, December 2014
UDC: 796.012.1-053.6:796.02
Milana Katanić1, Miroslav Smajić2, Alen Kapidžić3, Branka Protić-Gava2 and Ksenija
1Laza Kostić Gymnasium, Novi Sad;
2 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education University of Novi Sad;
3 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education University of Tuzla;
4Medical Faculty University of Novi Sad
Importance of physical education and its placment in the educational system are known for a
long period of time. Many resreaches have been conducted in order to determine the extent to
which physical education positively influences students. Results of some studies show that
physical education classes are unsatisfactory and inappropriate, given the circumstances- age
and individual skills of students, their needs and interests (Arunovic, 1978; Visnjic, 1983;
Krsmanovic, 1988, 1995). Main reasons for ineficinet physical education classes can be found
in the bad concept of modelling teaching syllabuses and small number of physical education
classes per week (Krsmanovic, 1995). The aim of the study is determining differences
between examinees in terms of motor skills, depending on material and technical conditions
as well as method of class organisation that is realization of the curriculum. The participants
in the study were 142 adolescents, 17 years of age (± 6 months ). In order to assess motor
skills 12 motor tests were used. Data processing was done by applying multivariate analysis
of covariance
(MANCOVA), significance of difference was determined by analysis of
variance (ANOVA), while differences among examinees of the experimental and the control
group were determined by discriminant analysis. After the experimental treatment, it was
determined that there was statistically significant difference between the experimental and the
control group within the motor skills system.
Keywords: Motor status, adolescents, organization of teaching, modified curriculum, material
and technical conditions.
Physical education should become a powerful mechanism that will efficently stem
negative effects of modern life. It is neccesary to choose a course conent that will induce
optimal reactions of an organism, that is a course content that will induce changes in terms of
morphological fatures, functional and motor skills, being the main tasks of physical education
in the primary schools (Zrnzevic i Zrnzevic, 2011). Importance of physical education and its
placment in the educational system are known for a long period of time. Many resreaches
have been conducted in order to determine the extent to which physical education positively
influences students. Results of some studies show that physical education classes are
unsatisfactory and inappropriate, given the circumstances- age and individual skills of
students, their needs and interests (Arunovic, 1978; Visnjic, 1983; Krsmanovic, 1988, 1995).
Main reasons for ineficinet physical education classes can be found in the bad concept of
modelling teaching syllabuses and small number of physical education classes per week
(Krsmanovic, 1995). Choosing course contents and their structures are considered to be one
of the fundamental problems. Therefore, choosing course contents has to be based on the
scientific principles and in accordance with social, cultural and sociological requirements. The
theory and practice of physical education in the last few decades indicate that there is need for
students to actively participate in determining course contents (Matić i Bokan, 1990; Šekeljić
i Stamatović, 2009).
Studying the differences between basically motor and functional skills of students
under the influence of physical education classes, it is concluded that there have not been
significant changes but some quantitive changes in terms of time covering annual physical
education classes, have occured (Tabakovic et al, 2007).
Based on the motor skills study of students of different educational profiles in the
High School of Economics, it is determined that there are statistically significant differences
in all given tests (Stojkovic i Ristic, 2007).
Despite recent advances in state policies that support physical education programs
(Kann et al, 2007), many schools still struggle to provide the frequency and intensity of
physical education and physical activity opportunities recommended by Healthy People 2010
(U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). These recommendations stipulate
that children and adolescents should participate in daily physical education and be physically
active for at least 50% of physical education class time. Although policies can dictate the
amount of time allotted for physical education, students physical activity levels are functions
of both environmental factors and student characteristics. For example, the amount of
physical education class time devoted to management (e.g., taking role, transitioning between
activities), affects the duration and intensity of students’ in-class physical activity (Simons-
Morton et al, 1993). At the student level, engagement in physical education is an important
determinant of students’ activity levels during class (Fairclough & Stratton, 2005; Ntoumanis,
2005; Standage et al, 2003), as well as their participation in physical activity outside of school
(Ntoumanis, 2005).
The aim of the study is determining differences between examinees in terms of motor skills,
depending on material and technical conditions as well as method of class organisation that is
realization of the curriculum.
The study comprised of 142 examinees, as the sample of adolescent population, from
two gymnasiums in Novi Sad, 17 years old (± 6 months). The control group consisted of the
students who had their physical education classes in the school gyms, twice a week, one
school class at a time, according to the standards of the curriculum. Other group that is
experimental group consisted of 74 students who had a physical education class once a week,
a block schedule of two school classes’ duration, in a rented place which was not intended for
school classes, because of specific material and technical conditions the curriculum was
changed as well.
Testing was done in physical education classes. It was conducted with the consent of
professors and students. There were two stages of measuring: initial and final measuring. The
treatment lasted for 4 months and covered the control and the experimental group.
For the purpose of assesing motor skills, 12 tests were used that previously showed
positive metric features (Bala, 1980). Having in mind the stated experiences and features,
motor skill tests were used as follows:
For assessing statistical strength: pull-ups on the bar and push-up endurance;
For assessing explosive strength: standing long jump and lying med ball throws;
For assessing repetitive strength: push-ups on the ground and bending of trunk from lying
For assessing flexibility: high bending on the bench and shoulder flex bat.
For assessing speed: finger tapping and running 20 m.
For assessing coordination: agility with the bat and backward polygon.
Data processing was done by applying multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA),
significance of difference was determined by analysis of variance
(ANOVA), while
differences among examinees of the experimental and the control group were determined by
discriminant analysis.
Based on the obtained results (Table 1), it is evident that there are statistically
significant differences between examined groups. Also, it is possible to set a clear line
between examined groups in terms of motor skill tests.
The analysis of the obtained results shows that there are statistically significant
differences between the experimental and the control group, in terms of motor skills, after the
experimental treatment.
Further analysis shows the results which confirm that except statistically significant
differences, the clear line can be set between examined groups in term of motor skill tests.
Table 1. Significance of differences between groups after the treatment
On the basis of the stated, we can conclude that examinees from the experimental
group have better test results in assessing statistical strength, speed and explosive strength,
even though physical education classes are conducted under non-standard conditions and
according to the modified curriculum.
From observing the obtained results (Table 2), we can conclude that statistically significant
differences occur in four of twelve applied tests. Values of the stated tests are in favour of the
experimental group, except the value of bending of trunk from lying position test which is in
favour of the control group.
Table 2 Significance of difference between the groups of examinees after the experimental
Coefficient of
x e
x k
Pull-ups on the bar
Push- up endurance
Standing long jump
Lying med ball throws
Push- ups on the ground
Bending of trunk from lying position
High bending on the bench
Shoulder flex bat
Finger tapping
Agility with the bat
Backward polygon
Running 20m
This type of result was expected, since the examinees from the experimental group have their
physical education classes according to the curriculum with teaching units containing
exercises for developing statistical strength and explosive strength. However, worse repetitive
strength test results were not expected. It is certain that this type of result comes from
relatively small number of examinees. Thus, better speed results of the experimental group
can be seen as logical, since the examinees of this group had lower values in assessing growth
and development after the treatment.
In the system of motor skill test, there are statistically significant differences between
the experimental and the control group in the initial measuring, in favour of the experimental
group. In the system of motor skill test, there are statistically significant differences between
the experimental and the control group in the final measuring, in favour of the control group.
In the system of motor skill test, there is statistically significant difference between the
experimental and the control group after the experimental treatment.
Experimental treatment showed that results in terms of motor skill test indicate
existance of statistically significant differences.
The mismatch between the curucculum and exsisting material and tecnical conditions
directly impacts on the motor status of adolescents (Katanic, 2010).
Second only to families, schools are the most powerful systems for the establishment of a
physically active lifestyle among children, and therefore across the lifespan. Student
engagement has been increasingly recognized as essential to the success of educational
programs including physical education. Indeed, the current study supports prior research
which indicates that engagement in physical education enhances the frequency and intensity
of student physical activity (Ntoumanis, 2001). Given this association, activity-promoting
physical education programs should be developed with consideration to the student, school,
and classroom characteristics that strengthen or weaken student engagement in physical
education over time. In doing so, it is essential to distinguish between student- and system-
level facilitators of physical education engagement (Furlong & Christenson, 2008).
Undoubtedly, adequate exposure to high-intensity physical education is an effective
contributor to healthy lifestyle among children and across the lifespan. The one study suggests
that students’ engagement in physical education is an important target for physical activity-
promoting interventions. Specific physical education instructional strategies (e.g., reducing
game play and increasing skill practice) are likely to increase student engagement and
program effects can be enhanced by tailoring physical education opportunities to further
engage students with low competency beliefs and poor body image (Bevans et al, 2010).
Arunovic, D. (1978). The impact of specally planned physical education classes
emphasis on basketball) on motor skills of
15- to
16- year-olds.
[Uticaj posebno
programirane nastave fizičkog vaspitanja (sa akcentom na košarku) na neke motoričke
sposobnosti učenika uzrasta 15-16 godina]. M.Sc thesis, Belgrade: Faculty of Sport and
Physical Education.
Bala, G. (1980). Structure and development of morphological and motor dimensions of
children in SAP Vojvodina. [Struktura i razvoj morfoloških i motoričkih dimenzija dece
u SAP Vojvodini]. Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.
Bevans, K., Fitzpatrick, L-A., Sanchez, B., Forrest, C.B. (2010). Individual and Instructional
Determinants of Student Engagement in Physical Education. J Teach Phys Educ, 29(4):
Fairclough, S., Stratton, G. (2005). Physical activity levels in middle and high school physical
education: A review. Pediatric Exercise Science, 17: 217-236.
Furlong, M.J., Christenson, S.L. (2008). Engaging students at school and with learning: a
relevant construct for all students. Psychology in the Schools, 45: 365-368.
Kann, L., Brener, N.D., Wechsler, H. (2007). Overview and summary: School health policies
and programs study 2006. The Journal of School Health, 77: 385-397.
Katanic, M. (2010). The impact of various material and technical conditions and methods of
organisation on anthropometric and motor status of students.
[Uticaj različitih
materijano-tehničkih uslova i načina organizacije nastave na antropometrijski i
motorički status učenika]. Unpublished M. Sc thesis, Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and
Physical Education.
Krsmanovic, B. (1988). Student's load in physical exercise classes. [Opterećenja učenika na
času fizičkog vežbanja]. In Proceedings of teachers and associates of the Faculty of
Physical Culture in Novi Sad
(91-99). Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical
Krsmanovic, B. (1995). Difficulties of task realization in physical education classes in the
primary school. [Teškoće u realizaciji zadataka fizičkog vaspitanja u osnovnoj školi]. In
Proceedings of the "Modelling and evaluation of physical education curriculum", VII/a
(21 - 25). Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.
Matic, M. i Bokan, B. (1990). Physical education introduction to professional and theoretical
upgrade. [Fizičko vaspitanje uvod u stručno-teorijsku nadgradnju]. Novi Sad: Oko
Ntoumanis, N. (2001). A self-determination approach to the understanding of motivation in
physical education. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71: 225-242.
Ntoumanis, N. (2005). A prospective study of participation in optional school physical
education using a self-determination theory framework. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 97: 444-453.
Simons-Morton, B.G., Taylor, W.C., Snider, S.A., Huang, I.W. (1993). The physical activity
of fifth-grade students during physical education classes. American Journal of Public
Health, 83: 262-264.
Standage, M., Duda, J.L., Ntoumanis, N. (2003). A model of contextual motivation in
physical education: Using constructs from self-determination and achievement goal
theories to predict physical activity intentions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95:
Stojkovic, M., Ristic, B. (2007). Motor skills of different educational profiles students in the
School of Economics. [Motoričke sposobnosti učenika različitih obrazovnih profila
srednje ekonomske škole]. In Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Scientific Conference
“Anthropological status and physical activity of children, youth and adults” (127-132).
Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical Education.
Sekeljic, G. i Stamatovic, M. (2009). The impact of various educational technologies on the
motor space of fourth graders. [Uticaj različitih nastavnih tehnologija na motorički
prostor učenika IV razreda osnovne škole]. In Proceedings of the Faculty of Education
in Uzice, 11 (257-268). Užice: Faculty of Education.
Tabakovic, M., Turkovic, S., Hadzikadunic, A., Kozic, V. (2007). Differences between basic
motor and functional skills of eighth graders under the influence of physical education
classes. [Razlike bazično motoričkih i funkcionalnih sposobnosti učenika VIII razreda
pod uticajem nastave tjelesnog i zdravstvenog odgoja]. In Proceedings of the
Interdisciplinary cientific Conference “Anthropological status and physical activity of
children, youth and adults”
(315-322). Novi Sad: Faculty of Sport and Physical
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
(2000). Healthy People:
Understanding and Improving Health
(Second Edition). Washington, DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
Visnjic, D. (1983). Encouraging of students to exercise on their own as a factor of success of
physical education classes. [Podsticanje učenika za samostalno vežbanje kao faktor
uspešnosti nastave fizičkog vaspitanja]. PhD thesis, Belgrade: Faculty of Sports and
Physical Education.
Zrnzevic, N., Zrnzevic, J. (2011). The impact of specially planned physical education classes
on motor skills of seven years old females. [Uticaj posebno programirane nastave
fizičkog vaspitanja na motoričke sposobnosti sedmogodišnjih učenica]. Sport Mont, 28,
29, 30: 285-293.
Volume 6, Issue 2, December 2014
UDC: 797.2-057.874
Tatjana Vlahović
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad
Physical education has an important role in students' preparation for lifelong fitness
participation. Since swimming is considered as one of the most beneficial fitness activities,
swimming competencies, including knowledge of safety routines, should be developed
through physical education classes. In order to examine swimming competencies of
elementary and secondary school students, the cross-sectional study was conducted. The
sample consisted of 143 students of both gender (71 elementary school students, 72 secondary
school students). The previously used questionnaire was modified (Moran, 2006) and the data
concerning selfevaluation of swimming skills, safety information resources and life saving
skills are presented. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results suggest that there are
no significant differences between elementary and secondary school students in
selfevaluations of swimming skills, but they differ in safety information resources they use.
Schools fail in their mission to educate and develop students' swimming competencies.
Keywords: Swimming, students, safety.
Plivanje je aktivnost kretanja živih bića kroz vodu, koja pored toga uključuje i održavanje na
površini vode i kretanje u željenom smeru. Pogodno je za sve uzrasne kategorije i veoma
korisno za zdravlje ljudi. Može se naučiti u bilo kom životnom dobu, ali je najbolje kada se
plivanje nauči u detinjstvu, kako bi se deca još dok su sasvim mala navikla na blagotvorno
dejstvo vode.
Statistički podaci ukazuju da se na prostoru SAD u 2000. godini udavilo više od 1400
dece, mlađe od 20 godina. Najveći broj utopljenika su muškarci (83%), najugroženije starosno
doba je 18-24 godine, a podjednako se utapaju i plivači i neplivači (71%) (Dimitrić i Batez,
2013). "Sigurnost na vodi Novog Zelanda" (Water Safety New Zealand) je nacionalna
organizacija odgovorna za obrazovanje u oblasti bezbednosti na vodi na Novom Zelandu.
Podaci ukazuju da se u periodu od 2005. do 2009. godine, godišnje u proseku udavilo 85
(77%) muškaraca, a 26 (23%) žena. Najugroženiji uzrast u tom periodu bio je 45-54 godina
(20 utapanja-20%) i uzrast 15-24 godine (18 utapanja-16%). Uzrast 15-24 godine je i u 2010.
godini bio najugroženiji sa 20 utopljenika (23%). Osmišljeni programi koji su sprovedeni na
Novom Zelandu, smanjili su broj utopljenika od 1985. godine sa 215 utopljenika na 93 u
2006. godini, dok je u 2010.godini, broj utopljenika opao na 87. Najčešća mesta utapanja su
jezera (36%) i rečni tokovi (29%), a utapanja se najčešće dešavaju prilikom rekreativnih
aktivnosti (63%). U periodu maj-avgust utopilo se dve trećine utopljenika mlađih od 15
godina, a deca uzrasta 5-19 godina utopila su se vikendom. Utopljenici uzrasta od 1-4 godine
uglavnom su se udavili u privatnim bazenima, dok su se utopljenici stariji od 5 godina
najčešće davili u jezerima i rekama. Uzrok u 30-50% utapanja odraslih je alkoholisano stanje.
Za period 2005-2009. godine u Republici Srbiji se prosečno utopi 102,6 utopljenika, dok se u
AP Vojvodini prosečno utopi 43,4 (Dimitrić i Batez, 2013). Odnos između sposobnosti
plivanja, učenja plivanja i rizika od utapanja za malu decu je predmet nekih istraživanja.
Većini je nepoznato da su mladi što se tiče rizika od utapanja jedna od najugroženijih grupa u
većini razvijenih zemalja. Smatra se da časovi plivanja poboljšavaju sposobnost ronjenja,
plivanje pod vodom, pravilno disanje, ali još uvek nije dokazano da sposobnost plivanja
smanjuje mogućnost utapanja. Sve ove sposobnosti imaju veze sa preživljavanjem u vodi, ali
koliko utiču jedna na drugu i dalje ostaje nejasno. Nedavne studije (Brenner, 2009) su
pokazale pozitivan odnos između nastave plivanja kod dece predškolskog uzrasta. Časovi
plivanja smanjili su rizik od utapanja za 88% kod dece od 1-4 godine starosti. Rezultati su
prikazani deci u manje i srednje razvijenim zemljama. Da li znanje plivanja ima blagotvorno
dejstvo na rizik od utapanja teško je utvrditi iz dva razloga. Prvo, ne postoji jedna prihvaćena
definicija među stručnjacima o bezbednosti na vodi kojom se definiše sposobnost plivanja.
Često se definiše kao sposobnost čoveka da određenom tehnikom plivanja pređe određenu
razdaljinu. Ta razdaljina nije tačno definisana, smatra se da je to distanca od 25 do 200
metara. Langendorfer i Bruja (1995) smatraju da je sposobnost na vodi sveobuhvatniji pojam
od sposobnosti plivanja i da bolje opisuje veštine na vodi i znanja u vezi sa aktivnostima na
vodi. Brener smatra da sposobnost plivanja nije dovoljna da se spreči utapanje. Shodno tome,
ovim istraživanjem je usvojen termin sposobnost na vodi koji opisuje skup veština koje mogu
sprečiti utapanje. Drugo, mnogo istraživanja pokazuje da je glavni problem što mnogi
precenjuju svoje sposobnosti i potcenjuju rizik od utapanja, naročito muškarci. Stoga su
muškarci rizičnija grupa od žena, što dokazuje i istraživanje vršeno na Novom Zelandu
(Moran, 2006), gde je utvrđeno da značajno više mladih muškaraca nego žena starosti od 15-
19 godina procenjuje bolju sposobnost plivanja i niže procene rizika od utapanja. Još jedan
problem predstavlja i ubeđenost mladih muškaraca da su sposobni da reaguju na pravi način u
rizičnim situacijama. Vršeno je istraživanje na studentima prve godine, gde su nešto više od
polovine ispitanika bili muškarci (53%), jedna polovina bili su starosti 17-19 godina, a druga
polovina između 20-29 godina. Oni su bili stanovnici Novog Zelanda, Australije, Japana i
Norveške. Studenti su procenjivali svoje sposobnosti na vodi zajedno sa procenom rizika od
utapanja. Više od jedne trećine studenata (35%) nije moglo da ostane na povržini vode duže
od 2 minuta, a skoro polovina (48%) nije mogla da ostane na površini duže od 6 minuta.
Nedostatak znanja i iskustva povezan je sa rizikom od utapanja, a mnoga istraživanja
pokazuju da mladi nisu svesni koliko je opasno preplivavati reku, plivati u jezeru, moru ili
drugoj vodenoj površini (Bennett, Quan, & Williams, 2002), kao i koliko je opasno mešati
alkohol sa aktivnostima na vodi (Orlowski, 1987, 1989).
Zbog svega navedenog, potrebno je ustanoviti koliko su naša deca informisana o bezbednosti
na vodi i da li škola u tom pogledu obavlja svoju ulogu.
U planu i programu fizičkog vaspitanja u osnovnim školama, nalazi se plivanje kao njegov
sastavni deo. Bez obzira na to, neke škole nisu uvek u mogućnosti da u redovnoj nastavi pruže
učenicima potrebno znanje iz plivanja, te se plivačka aktivnost može odvijati kroz školsku
slobodnu aktivnost. Da bi se pomoglo u ostvarenju ove fizičke aktivnosti, škole organizuju
plivačke sekcije, ili u okviru školskog društva za fizičku kulturu ili kao samostalno telo. U
okviru logorovanja, koje traje najmanje sedam dana, organizuje se obuka plivanja. Obuka
plivanja je specifičan način izvođenja nastave i usmerena je ka sticanju motoričkih znanja i
umenja, kao i stvaranju navika bavljenja motoričkim aktivnostima učenika u ranom periodu
detinjstva. Učenici nižih razreda treba da imaju po jedan kurs plivanja u svakom razredu, a
najmanje jedan tokom četvorogodišnjeg školovanja u prvom ciklusu osnovnog obrazovanja i
vaspitanja. Za kurs plivanja planira se dvanaest časova od ukupnog fonda predviđenog za
zajednički program, gde nastavnik ili instruktor sprovodi obuku plivanja i usavršavanje
obučene tehnike. Na kraju obuke, učenik treba da prepliva najmanje do 20 metara izabranom
tehnikom. Pošto se predmetna nastava organizuje tek u trećem i četvrtom razredu, ukoliko
nije moguće da se nastava fizičkog vaspitanja u ova dva razreda izvodi kao predmetna,
obezbeđuje se stručno-instruktivan rad za ciklus iz plivanja. U petom razredu učenici treba da
nauče plivanje jednom tehnikom i da tom tehnikom preplivaju 20 metara. Pored kursnog
oblika, plivanje se u planu i programu od petog do osmog razreda, može naći i kao izabrani
sport, koji se održava jednom nedeljno, odnosno 36 puta godišnje (u osmom razredu 34 časa
godišnje). Nastava fizičko vaspitanje - izabrani sport obavezan je izborni predmet i realizuje
se u okviru redovne nastave, ali se posebno numeriše. Kao izabrani sport, plivanje spada u
sportove koji se nalaze u programima takmičenja „Saveza za školski sport i olimpijsko
vaspitanje Srbije“.
Nastava fizičkog vaspitanja se u srednjim školama, pored zajedničkog programa, sprovodi i
kao program po izboru učenika. Učenici se na početku školske godine, na osnovu svojih
sposobnosti i interesovanja, opredeljuju za sport koji im odgovara. Nastavnik ih obučava i
pomaže im da se usavršavaju i razvijaju u tom pravcu. Godišnji fond časova u prvom razredu
je 70, u drugom 74, u trećem 72, a u četvrtom 64 časa. Nastava plivanja se realizuje u dva
ciklusa, a svaki od njih sadrži 10 časova. Na času plivanja, nastavnik učenike upoznaje sa
osnovnim siguronosnim merama u plivanju, a oni ih primenjuju u praksi. Pored toga, zadatak
učenika je, da po svom izboru i na osnovu svojih sklonosti, usvoje dve tehnike plivanja, da
vežbaju kako bi postigli bolje rezultate, da nauče skok sa startnog bloka i okrete, kao i da
učestvuju na odeljenskim, razrednim i međuškolskim takmičenjima.
Cilj istraživanja je da se ispitaju kompetencije učenika osnovnih i srednjih škola, uključujući
samoprocenu plivačke veštine, ponašanje na vodi, osposobljenost za pružanje prve pomoći i
poznavanje osnovnih pravila bezbednosti na vodi.
Istraživanje transverzalnog tipa, sprovedeno je u osnovnim školama na teritoriji grada Novog
Sada i Subotice. Uzorak ispitanika sačinjava ukupno 143 ispitanika, oba pola. U pitanju su
učenici osnovne škole (ukupno 71 ispitanik) i učenici srednje škole (ukupno 72 ispitanika).
Za prikupljanje podataka korišćen je adaptirani upitnik o bezbednosti na vodi, primenjen u
ranijem istraživanju (Moran, 2006). Pored osnovnih demografskih podataka, Upitnik sadrži
segmente koji se odnose na: 1) izvore informacija o bezbednosti na vodi, 2) poznavanje
tehnike plivanja, 3) prethodna ponašanja na vodi, 4) poznavanje osnovnih pravila ponašanja
na vodi i 5) razumevanje značaja bezbednosnih protokola na vodi. Ovde će biti prikazani
podaci koji se odnose na samoprocenu znanja plivanja, izvore informacija o bezbednosti na
vodi i poznavanje spasilačkih procedura.
Dobijeni podaci obrađeni su pomoću deskriptivne statistike, hi-kvadrat testa i t-testa
za nezavisne uzorke.
Poznavanje tehnike plivanja
U tabeli 1 prikazani su odgovori ispitanika na pitanje da li znaju da plivaju, dok su u tabeli 2
prikazane osobe, odnosno institucije koje su zaslužne za njihovo plivačko znanje.
Tabela 1
Znanje plivanja učenika osnovne i srednje škole
Zna da pliva
Ne zna da pliva
(93.0 %)
2(1, N=143) = 0.09, P = .76
Tabela 2
Osoba/institucija zaslužna za plivačko znanje učenika osnovne i srednje škole
Osnovna Roditelji
24 (33.8%)
26 (36.1%)
6 (8.3%)
Izvori informacija o bezbednosti na vodi
U tabeli 3 prikazani su najvažniji izvori informacija o bezbednosti na vodi za učenike osnovne
i srednje škole.
Tabela 3
Najvažniji izvor informacija o bezbednosti na vodi za učenike osnovne i srednje škole
4 (5.6%)
Резултати који се односе на предавања о безбедности на води у склопу наставе
приказани су у табели 4.
Табела 4
Predavanja o bezbednosti na vodi u sklopu nastave
2(1, N=143) = 0.24, P = .62
Kompetencije učenika za spasavanje davljenika i pružanje prve pomoći
U tabeli 5 može se videti koliko su učenici osnovne i srednje škole sposobni da spasu osobu
koja se davi u dubokoj vodi, dok je u tabeli 6 prikazana sposobnost učenika pružanja prve
pomoći, odnosno srčano plućnog oživljavanja.
Табела 5
posobnost učenika da spasi osobu koja se davi u dubokoj vodi
2(3, N=143)=4.82, P = .18
Табела 6
posobnost učenika da pruži srčano plućno oživljavanje
2(3, N=143)=27.71, P < .00
Na osnovu dobijenih rezultata može se videti da većina učenika, kako srednje, tako i osnovne
škole, zna da pliva, i da su za to najzaslužniji roditelji i škole plivanja. Sposobnosti učenika
osnovne i srednje škole, na osnovu samoprocene, su podjednake. Uzimajući u obzir porodicu,
sportski klub i medije i internet kao najvažnije izvore informacija o bezbednosti na vodi za
učenike osnovne i srednje škole, može se zaključiti da postoji bitna razlika. Za učenike
osnovne škole, roditelji predstavljaju najvažniji izvor (54,9%), dok su kod učenika srednje
škole sportski klub i roditelji skoro podjednako važni, ali se na prvom mestu ipak nalazi
sportski klub (40,3%), a drugo mesto zauzima porodica (36,1%). Osim roditelja i sportskog
kluba, iz dobijenih podataka se može videti da se učenici srednje škole više informišu preko
medija i interneta od učenika osnovne škole.
Što se tiče predavanja o bezbednosti na vodi u sklopu nastave, većina učenika nije imala
predavanja u školi, te ne postoji bitna razlika između učenika osnovne i srednje škole. Na
osnovu onog što nastavni plan i program fizičkog vaspitanja nalaže, škole, kao vaspitno-
obrazovne institucije, ne ispunjavaju svoj zadatak u celini, a o tome svedoči podatak da 66,7%
učenika srednje škole i 71,8% učenika osnovne škole, u sklopu nastave fizičkog vaspitanja ili
van nje, nije imalo predavanja o bezbednosti na vodi. Učenici moraju dobiti potrebne
informacije, kako bi bili bezbedni prilikom bavljenja aktivnostima na vodi. Zbog toga bi se od
prvog razreda osnovne škole u nastavu fizičkog vaspitanja trebalo uvesti plivanje, kao njegov
obavezni deo. Obrazovanje o bezbednosti na vodi trebalo bi da se nastavi i u srednjim
školama, jer se stalnim informisanjem podiže svest učenika.
Podjednak broj učenika osnovne i srednje škole se izjasnio da bi bio sposoban da spasi
osobu koja se davi u dubokoj vodi, dok bitna razlika postoji kod učenika osnovne i srednje
škole u sposobnosti pružanja srčano plućnog oživljavanja. Veći broj učenika srednje škole se
izjasnio da poznaje pravila prve pomoći i da bi bio sposoban da je pruži ukoliko je to
potrebno. Većina učenika, kako srednje, tako i osnovne škole se izjasnila da bi možda bila
sposobna da spasi osobu koja se davi, s tim što bi se izložila velikom riziku. Što se tiče srčano
plućnog oživljavanja, 69% učenika osnovne škole ne bi bilo u stanju da pruži prvu pomoć,
dok se skoro isti broj učenika srednje škole izjasnio da bi bio u stanju da pruži prvu pomoć.
Roditelji bi trebali da se angažuju i podstaknu decu da povećaju plivačku
sposobnost/kondiciju, a škole bi u tome trebale da im pomognu.
Na osnovu obrađenih podataka može se zaključiti da škole veoma malo pažnje posvećuju
plivanju, a samim tim i informisanju učenika o bezbednosti na vodi. To nije problem koji se
javlja samo u školama ova dva grada gde je vođeno istraživanje, već se on odnosi na teritoriju
čitave Republike Srbije.
Škole bi trebale što više da angažuju Crveni krst koji će učenicima pružiti potrebne
informacije preko predavanja, ali i praksu, odnosno pružanje prve pomoći licu koje se davi ili
koje nije pri svesti.
Pored škole, veliku ulogu, možda i najveću, ima porodica, odnosno roditelji. Zna se da je
porodica najvažnija za formiranje ličnosti deteta i da vaspitanje potiče prvenstveno iz
porodice. Deca su radoznala, a u starijem dobu sklona su isprobavanju različitih aktivnosti,
pogotovo na nagovor prijatelja, te bi roditelji trebali deci da sugerišu šta je dobro, a šta ne, i
da im objasne koliko može biti rizično bavljenje aktivnostima na vodi, ako se ne poštuju
bezbedonosna pravila.
Takođe veliku ulogu imaju i sportski klubovi, te bi oni pored predavanja koje drže svojim
članovima, mogli da promovišu pravila ponašanja prilikom bavljenja aktivnostima na vodi u
saradnji sa medijima, ili preko interneta.
Raznim predavanjima mogla bi da se podigne svest učenika, te da osim plivanja steknu
potrebna znanja o bezbednom ponašanju na vodi, pozitivne stavove prema plivanju, da nauče
kako da se ponašaju u slučaju da ih uhvati grč u dubokoj vodi ili ukoliko se nađu u nekoj
drugoj opasnosti koja može da ih zadesi u dubokoj vodi, da se obuče za pružanje prve
pomoći. Sve to spada u razvijanje kompetencija, a to znači da treba da budu sposobni za
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