ISSN: 1821-3480
Journal of Science in Sport
Vol. 8 (2016) No.2 (1-31)
Zoran Milosevic, Nebojsa Maksimovic, Ivana Milovanovic, Radenko Matic, Damjan Jaksic and Jovan
Socio-economic characteristics of families and physical activity of children
Filip Sadri, Milica Blagojevic and Ivo Sadri
Differences in motor abilities of boys and girls aged 7 in relation to the level of intellectual ability
Danijela Kuna, Sanjin Dzajic and Marko Mastelic
Expert model of the most important methodical exercises for fast skiing turns teaching
Tatjana Trivic, Cristina Casals and Patrik Drid
Physiological responses during arm and leg aerobic power tests in elite female judokas
Zeljka Bojanic and Natasa Ninic
Sources of stress as predictors of partner relationship quality
Instructions for Authors
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2)
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 3-8
Socio-economic characteristics of families and physical activity of
Zoran Milosevic1• Nebojsa Maksimovic1 • Ivana Milovanovic1 • Radenko Matic1
Damjan Jaksic1• Jovan Vukovic1
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access
Keywords Socio-economic characteristics
Children Family Physical activity
This study presents the results of empirical research
conducted with the aim of analyzing differences in
the physical activity of children in relation to the
socio-economic characteristics of their families. The
research was conducted by applying a questionnaire
Socio-economic characteristics, and the inequalities
distributed to pupils aged 11-12 years, who live in
within them, are among the current topics in
the city of Novi Sad (the city and the village of
academic research focused on the development of
Rumenka, Veternik, Kac, Bukovac, Futog). Bearing
children and youth
(Mollborn, Lawrence, James-
in mind that the work is a part of a broader research,
Hawkins, & Fomby, 2013). The social sciences
the authors' attention was focused on the objective,
continuously conduct research aimed at discovering
and the evaluation of the respondents on the socio-
as clear indicators of genetically inherited and even
economic status of the family, as well as differences
more intensely socially conditioned factors as
in physical activity among boys and girls, and
possible, that affect the overall cognitive, socio-
children who live in urban or rural setting. As
emotional and physical development of the youngest
dominant in this study stands out the finding of the
part of the population. In this regard, this study
author that the socioeconomic characteristics of
presents an empirical annex to the mentioned set of
families significantly affect the intensity, form and
research, given the focus of authors' attention on the
quality of physical activity of children. Since such a
relation of some socio-economic characteristics of
finding puts children living in families with low
the family and physical activity of schoolchildren in
socioeconomic status into a disadvantaged position,
the city of Novi Sad.
the authors believe that with the findings of this and
compatible researches it is needed to familiarize
Insight into the published academic papers
indicates the actuality of topics and diversity of
with the wider academic community, in order to
directions in which the authors perceive the issue of
include other social institutions in the process of
affirmation of physical activity as an important
physical activity of children and more concrete
relation of socio-economic status of families on one
lifestyle quality in children and youth.
hand and anthropometric features, motor behavior
and intellectual ability on the other. In these studies
(Strauss, Rodzilsky, Burack, & Colin,
Scheerder, Vanreusel, Taks, & Renson,
Brodersen, Steptoe, Boniface, & Wardle,
Maksimovic, Matic, & Obradovic,
2009; Matic,
Kuljic, & Maksimovic,
2010; De Cocker et al.,
2012; Klein, Fröhlich, Pieter, & Emrich,
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and
among other things, we find some key factors that
Physical Education
can influence the physical activity of children. It is
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 3-8
the individual factors, family
(that is appropriate
family support), peers
(adequate support), school
(education), local community (low or high economic
The sample of respondents in the research included
467 boys and 464 girls (N=931) aged 11-12 years
The family as the basic social community, and
(5th grade pupils of primary schools), of which
the nearest environment in which children develop is
48.5% of respondents come from villages
crucial for the overall development of children, and
(Rumenka, Veternik, Kac , Bukovac, Futog) and
therefore the results in the field of physical activity
51.5% from the city of Novi Sad.
(Mayer, 2002; Giulianotti 2008). As children often
Evaluation of physical activity entailed the scale
learn by observing the behavior of people in their
format from 0 to 7, depending on the frequency of
immediate environment, not surprising are the
the respondent's doing of varying intensity of
observations that the children of parents who have
physical activity on a weekly basis
already achieved results in sport are themselves
(not walking) and intense physical
physically active and successful in this area
(Giulianotti, 2008). Contrary to such families, there
are also those where a parent due to various reasons,
Socio-economic characteristics were evaluated
is not pointed to the importance of practicing
based on the issues related to one aspect of socio-
physical activity, resulting in a gradual loss of
economic status, that is the economic well-being of
families, which indirectly reflects families' income.
children's interest in sport
(Matic, Kuljic, &
Maksimovic, 2010).
This segment of the research included the following
“Does your family own a car or a
Peer influence is also important, and in
van?”, 2) “Do you have your own room?” 3) “How
adolescence certainly primary for general
many computers are in possession of your family?”
development, including physical activity of children
4) “How many bathrooms do you have at home?” 5)
(Rowland, 1999; Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000).
“Does your family own a dishwasher?” and 6) “How
Finally, institutional support through activities at
many times did you and your family travel on
school or at the level of clubs in local governments
vacation outside of Serbia last year?” Summarizing
is the last round of incentives of children to physical
the obtained results, all respondents were classified
activity by the wider community. However, recently,
into 3 formed categories of socioeconomic status:
among these factors socioeconomic status of the
low (0-4), intermediate (5-9) and high (10 and over).
family has clearly separated as dominant. In the
These results were supplemented by respondents'
Serbian society, the reason for such situation is the
own assessment of families' wealth. Question
general pauperization of the population, decades-
implied a scale of responses: 0-no, 1-yes, 1 vehicle,
long influence of which is visible in all areas of
2-yes, two or more vehicles. Questions
2 and 5
social life. As physical activity is not among the
presented dichotomous variables (0-no, 1-yes), while
existential human needs, we can assume that in
questions 3, 4 and 6 implied the scale format with
families of lower socioeconomic status from the
the following answers: 1) none, 2) one, 3) two, or 4)
perspective of parents, it does not occupy the
more than two.
primary place. On the other hand, the measures
taken by parents directly affect the intensity and
The statistical data analysis of differences among
quality of physical activity, and long term general
the respondents belonging to different categories of
psycho-physical development of children.
socioeconomic status used Kruskal-Wallis and Man-
Whitney tests.
With this in mind, our attention in this study is
focused on the socio-economic context as a factor of
influence on physical activity of schoolchildren in
Results and Discussion
the city of Novi Sad and the surrounding places.
More specifically, the aim of the research is to
The descriptive statistics in Table
1 show the
analyze the differences in the physical activity of
following representation of respondents defined by
children in relation to the socio-economic
socio-economic categories: middle
(65.2%), high
characteristics of their families.
(24.6%), and low (10.2%) socio-economic status.
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 3-8
Table 1. Socio-economic characteristics of respondents
Socio-economic category
Low status
Middle status
High status
How well-off/wealthy is the
Not at all
Not really
Weekly physical activity
Moderate physical Intensive physical
(% of N)
activity (% of N)
activity (% of N)
However, it is interesting that the estimation of
The presented results suggest that gender differences in
wealth of the family of the respondents showed
doing intensive forms of physical activity are in favor
slightly different results: the low status
of the boys. These results correspond to the results of
answers - not at all and not really), middle (43.8%,
previously completed studies
(Alexandre, Obert,
answer - average) and high (51%, answers - really,
Bonnet, & Courteix, 2003; Djordjic, 2006; Djordjic &
very), which indicates that respondents consider the
Krneta, 2007; Djordjic & Matic, 2008), which indicate
socio-economic status of their families to a certain
the increased willingness of parents of preschool and
extent higher than it is objectively observed
early-school ages to encourage children to engage in
according to the socio-economic parameters. This
physical activity. There is also more intense
result can be attributed to the comparison of the
stimulation of boys than girls to engage in physical
socio-economic status of their families with the
activity, which is an important indicator of cultural and
families of children from the immediate
gender-stereotyped perception of doing sports
environment, which is a logical aspect of this kind of
activities. Earlier research carried out on a sample of
evaluation in the age category of the respondents.
children of higher primary school grades show
themselves that boys and girls differently assess sport
The next step was a comparative statistical
and their own competencies in sport
(Djordjic &
analysis of the data, which was started by analyzing
2007). The result of the aforementioned
the differences in the levels of physical activity in
gender-stereotyping suggests that girls attach to sport
relation to gender, and is presented in Table 2.
some masculine traits. Djordjic and Matic
Table 2. Analysis of the differences in the levels of physical
pointed out that “boys feel more competent in sports,
activity by gender of the respondents
prefer competition and physical challenge more than
girls, and that they do sports in clubs to a significantly
Mean Rank
greater extent than girls. Finally, they note the
significantly lower number of female sporting role
models”. As the results of this study correspond with
Moderate physical activity
the results of research already completed, it can be seen
Intensive physical activity
as an indicator of insufficient engagement of parents,
** < 0.01 - Man-Whitney test
teachers and children themselves in the meantime.
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 3-8
The obtained results of the difference analysis of characteristics are shown in Table 3.
respondents in relation to their socio-economic
Table 3. Differences in respondents by socio-economic characteristics
socio-economic characteristics
Mean Rank
1 - low, 2 - middle i 3 - high status
Moderate physical activity
Intensive physical activity
* 0.05, ** < 0,01 - Kruskal Wallis test
subsamples, a < 0.01, b < 0.05 - Man Whitney test
Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded
Table 4. Analysis of difference in physical activity of
that statistically significant differences in all variables
respondents by place of residence
of physical activity in respondents of different socio-
Mean Rank
economic characteristics are in favor of children whose
families belong to the highest category of socio-
economic status, while the respondents whose families
Moderate physical activity
belong to low and middle status reported no
Intensive physical activity
statistically significant differences. These results
** < 0.01 - Man Whitney test
correspond to the factors of influence on physical
According to the results from Table 4, it can be
activity in children, which were mentioned in the first
concluded that moderate physical activity in the
part of the study. On one hand it can be assumed that
respondents from rural areas were statistically
the parents of children who are now more physically
significantly more active than the population of
active turned their attention to a significant extent to
children in the city. These results were expected,
that part of the everyday of their children in the
considering that the village as a socio-cultural context,
preschool and early school age, and thus further
due to the absence of large, busy streets and modern
developed the working habit in children who are now
children gives more freedom to spend time in
physically active independently, without the support of
organized or spontaneous activities outside the house.
the adults. In less active children, it can be assumed
This is not the case in the city, where the children's
that the parents due to the low socio-economic status of
everyday life from an early age is conditioned by
the family did not have the conditions, nor considered a
circumstances of parents to spend time together or take
priority at the stage of primary socialization of their
children to organized sports trainings. On the other
children to point to physical activity as part of a future
hand, the range of activities that the city offers is
lifestyle. Finally, it can be assumed that some of the
significantly wider than in the village, which is why,
children at the stage of adolescence distance
beside sports and music schools, children often attend a
themselves from physical activities, diverting their
school of foreign language, mathematics, art, go to the
resources to develop other talents or skills, which can
cinema and theater. Thus, physical activity becomes an
be encountered in literature (see: Rowland 1999). The
option for urban, and one of the dominant in rural
need of adolescents to conform, due to peer pressure,
environment. Generally, the village and the city as a
except in cases where doing sport has become an
important part of the lifestyle of the child, in everyday
opportunities for development, which is reflected in the
life, will distance children rather than make them
manner of growing up and life style of children.
closer to physical activity.
Physical activity is one of the indicators of these
Further statistical analysis determined to what
manifest differences.
extent the respondents' place of residence differs the
If the results of our study should be summarized in
respondents from the aspect of physical activity (Table
one sentence, it would read:
characteristics of families significantly affect the
intensity, form and quality of physical activity of
children”. Such a conclusion is compatible with the
results of previously published studies
(La Torre,
Masala, De Vito, Arzano, Fargione, & Capelli, 2003;
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 3-8
Maksimovic & Matic, 2006; Matic & Jaksic, 2007;
Matic, Kuljic, & Maksimovic, 2010; Kuljic, Matic, &
2014) indicating the socio-economic
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favor of these findings, indicating a relation of some
Gottrand, F., Béghin, L., Hagströmer, M., Sjöström,
socio-demographic parameters
(gender, place of
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Differences in motor abilities of boys and girls aged 7 in relation to the
level of intellectual ability
Filip Sadri1• Milica Blagojevic1 • Ivo Sadri1
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access
physical abilities is associated with improvement of
Since previous studies suggest a relationship
brain tissue during aging, while also the functional
between motor and cognitive development in
aspects of a higher order, which are involved in the
children, a research was conducted in order to
control of cognition are improved (Gomez-Pinilla &
examine the differences in motor skills of children
2013). Cognitive behavioral model
with different levels of intellectual ability. In a
emphasizes the role of cognitive functioning that
sample of 88 respondents, boys and girls aged 7, an
contributes to the emergence of emotional and
assessment of motor skills was performed by using
behavioral disorders. Incorrect assessment of social
the battery of seven motor tests and assessment of
situations, the tendency self-underestimation,
intellectual abilities by using the test of Raven's
unreasonable sense of guilt for errors, are examples
Coloured Progressive Matrices. Respondents were
of dysfunctional cognitive processes. Cognitive
divided into three groups according to the results of
abilities are responsible for forecasting, planning,
the test. After analyzing the results of the research it
decision-making processes, as well as comparisons
was shown that there were no statistically significant
and information processing along with the use of
differences in the area of motor abilities of children
long-term memory in resolving problem situations.
of different intellectual levels, but there were
Motor skills play a key role in the functioning of
differences at the univariate level regarding the tests
the child regarding the social and emotional area
Hand Tapping and Seat-and-Reach.
(domain). Weaker motor coordination in children
can affect their feelings that they are less able than
Keywords Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices
their peers, but also affects their academic
Motor skills Intelligence Younger school age
achievements, and even the choice of recreational
activities. The relationship between motor skills and
social and emotional functioning is usually
considered indirect. In other words, poor motor
skills can lead to poor achievements in individual
Current theoretical approaches and empirical
and team sports, which can reduce the feeling of
findings from the research conducted over the last
competence in children and increase their anxiety
decade indicate that physical activity may contribute
and depression (Cummins et al., 2005). Children
to the improvement and preservation of cognitive
with poor motor coordination are less competent in
abilities during the human life. Improvement of
their ability to recognize emotions. Study by
Cummins and associates (2005) found that children
with motor coordination problems are less accurate
(correct) and slower in reacting to facial emotional
signs. Children with coordination disorder may be at
a disadvantage during the social process with their
peers, as they may have more difficulties in
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and
Physical Education
detecting emotional states of others and in use of this
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 9-14
information for their behavior in the social
V. Stojanović i M. Stojanović, 2006; M. Stojanović,
Rubin, M. V. Stojanović & Fratrić,
2006). The
motor testing of children systematically uses
Sport and physical activity are positively
appropriate measuring instruments, or tests, in order
correlated with children's physical and mental health
to quantify motor behavior. Differences in motor
(Strong et al.,
2005). However, the increased
behavior are attributed to differences in
participation of children in sport and other forms of
coordination, explosive strength, speed of alternative
physical activity also leads to improved cognitive
movements, balance and flexibility, exogenous
functioning of children, better information
factors, as well as the functioning of the CNS during
processing, development of memory, concentration,
the manifestation of certain abilities in motor
behavior. There is sufficient evidence on the
behavior. Even less mentally disabled persons are
relationship between physical activity and
significantly inferior in motor skills compared to the
improvement of cognitive skills and executive
standard population, where the level of motor
functioning and control. Executive functioning
behavior in less mentally disabled person falls
refers to the cognitive processes needed for target
3-4 years compared to the standard
oriented cognition and behaviors that develop
population of the same age
2000). The
through childhood and adolescence
connection between intellectual and motor
Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer,
2008; Hillman,
functioning was first detected and confirmed in
Pontifex, Raine, Castelli, Hall, & Kramer,
samples of persons who are mentally disabled (Bala,
Kamijo et al.,
2011). Most motor tasks require
Sabo, & Popović, 2005). Bearing in mind the results
precisely those processes, and many of them contain
of previous research, a research was conducted in
problematic component, for example, numerous
order to examine the differences in motor skills of
situations in the sports game, creating their own
children aged 7 depending on the level of cognitive
solutions to overcome the track with obstacles, etc.
The motor coordination tests also consist of a kind
of problem situations that need to be addressed
effectively (Dolenc, Pistotnik, & Pinter, 2002). In
addition, individuals who are physically more active
are able to process more information faster. These
Data were collected as part of the research project
data suggest that physical activity may contribute to
the improvement of cognitive skills, allows effective
“Anthropological status and physical activity of the
population of Vojvodina”, Faculty of Sport and
response to a given challenge with good results in
Physical Education in Novi Sad.
carrying out the task. New evidence shows that
physical exercise exerts its effects on cognition, by
The analysis was conducted on a sample of 88
influencing the molecular events related to the
students (43 boys and 45 girls) aged 7, from the
control of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity,
cities across Vojvodina (Novi Sad, Bačka Palanka,
and their processes (Ang, Tai Lo, Seet, & Soong,
Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Zrenjanin) which
2010). An important initiator of the molecular
were included in the testing within the research
mechanism includes physical exercises because the
project “Anthropological status and physical activity
brain (CNS) is a derived neurotrophic factor, which
of the population of Vojvodina”. Testing of motor
acts within the interface between the metabolism and
abilities was performed on the basis of the reduced
plasticity. Recent studies show that exercise along
model designed by Kurelić et al.
(1975) with
with other aspects of lifestyle affects the molecular
motor tests.
basis of cognition (Baker, et al., 2010; Berchtold,
Motor tests that were applied in this study were:
Chinn, Chou, Kesslak, & Cotman, 2010; Gomez-
1) Obstacle course backwards test - coordination of
Pinilla & Hillman, 2013; Kamijo & Takeda, 2009).
body and reorganization of movement stereotypes;
In addition, selected dietary factors have similar
2) Hand tapping test - movement frequency; 3) Sit-
mechanisms as exercises and, in some cases, can
and-reach test - flexibility; 4) Standing broad jump
complement the effect of exercise. So, exercise and
test - explosive leg strength; 5) 20 meters run test -
diet are non-invasive and effective strategies of
running speed;
6) Trunk lifting test
- repetitive
combating neurological and cognitive disorders.
strength of the trunk and 7) Bent arm hang test -
In many studies the relations were found between
static strength of arms and shoulders.
mobility and intelligence
(Dolenc, Pistotnik, &
Pinter, 2002; Hariri et al., 2003; Planinšec, 2002; M.
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 9-14
To test the intelligence the Raven's Coloured
Progressive Matrices were used (Fajgelj, Bala, &
2007). Raven's Coloured Progressive
The results of testing by using the multivariate
Matrices are one of the most commonly-used tests
analysis of variance showed that at the level of the
for testing the intelligence of preschool and young
whole system of motor variables, there was no
school-age children in our country. Based on the
results achieved by the respondents during the test,
respondents with different levels of intellectual
they were divided into three groups: the first group
(F = 1.446; P = .138). However, at the
consisted of respondents whose result was located
univariate level, statistically significant differences
within the first quarter, the second group consisted
were obtained in two of the seven motor variables:
of respondents who achieved results in the second
Hand tapping and Sit-and-reach (Table 1). From the
and third quarters, and in the third group were
table we can conclude that the second group
classified respondents with the best results
(AVERAGE) achieved the best average values
fourth quarter). The first group contained
regarding the variable Hand tapping, while the third
respondents (from 55 to 81 of IQ), the second group
group achieved the best results regarding the
was made of 56 respondents (86 to 107 of IQ) and
variable seat-and-reach (ABOVE AVERAGE).
the third group was made of 21 respondents (109 of
IQ and more).To determine the quantitative
differences, univariate and multivariate analysis of
variance were applied.
Table 1. Results of MANOVA, ANOVA, and Post-hoc tests regarding the motor skills in all analyzed groups
Below average (a)
Average (b)
Above average (c)
mean ± SD
mean ± SD
mean ± SD
20m dash (0,1 s)
48.45 ± 5.126
48.18 ± 6.025
47.71 ± 4.417
Obstacle course backwards (0,1 s)
277.27 ± 140.895
241.04 ± 96.506
264.38 ± 114.381
Hand taping (n/15 s)
16.27 ± 3.690
19.25 ± 3.553a/b
18.19 ± 2.804
Seat-and-reach (cm)
37.00 ± 8.899
40.77 ± 8.093
45.19 ± 11.321a/c
Standing broad jump (cm)
121.82 ± 20.841
124.75 ± 21.277
122.90 ± 20.152
Bent arm hang (0,1 s)
155.18 ± 181.770
167.16 ± 120.181
185.48 ± 177.789
Trunk lifting (n/60 s)
28.64 ± 6.265
25.14 ± 10.147
26.52 ± 7.607
f - univariate f-test; p - significance of f-test; F - multivariate F-test; P - significance of F-test, a/b - significant Post-Hoc tests
(a vs b, if b is bolded means that b is better than a)
In order to identify groups between which there
are statistically significant differences in variables
Hand tapping and Seat and reach, LSD - Post Hoc
test was applied (Table 1). Statistically significant
This study was aimed at the investigation of the
differences were noticed between the first and
differences in motor skills of children aged 7, with
second group regarding the HAND TAPPING motor
different levels of intellectual ability.
test. The differences are in favor of the second group
By reviewing the results obtained, we can
(AVERAGE). When it comes to SEAT-AND-
conclude that there is no statistically significant
REACH motor test, statistically significant
difference in the general area ofmotor skills in
differences were observed between the first and the
children with different levels of intelligence. At the
third group, and the difference is in favor of a third
univariate level, however, there is a statistically
significant difference regarding the two variables:
Hand tapping and Sit-and-reach. Most authors agree
with the fact that there are general mechanisms that
are responsible for the speed of information flow,
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 9-14
and that the tasks with measuring the information
activities, and this relationship lasts a lifetime.
flow rate, even the easiest ones, are significantly
Acquisition of intellectual and motor abilities takes
positively correlated with general intelligence factor
place in a very similar way, i.e. similar mechanisms
(Vernon & Mori,
1992). It is concluded that
govern both types of abilities (Paz et al., 2004). In
complex motor tasks have a stronger relationship
addition to its well-established role in balance,
with cognitive abilities, i.e. their performance
coordination and other motor skills, the cerebellum
involves cognitive processes to a greater extent,
plays a prominent role in a number of cognitive and
while the process of performing a simple motor
emotional functions, and is also associated with the
tasks is at the lower, elementary level, where the
ability to learn complex motor tasks (Tiemeierisar.,
share of intellectual processes is minimized.
2010). Cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular
strength and power, and physical activity are
Van der Fels et al. (2015) have obtained different
associated with learning capability, which was
results regarding the relations between the basic
consistent with the hypothesis that physical activity
categories of motor and cognitive abilities, resulting
improves academic achievement. They concluded
in interesting conclusions: fine motor skills, bilateral
that physical activity and physical fitness, at best,
coordination of the body and movement
can contribute to improved academic achievements
performance in a given time interval showed the
(Dwyer et al.,
2001). Cognitive abilities include
strongest correlation with cognitive abilities. Fine
mental processing of information and include
motor skills involve those tasks that require fine
processes such as attention, perception, memory,
motor precision and integration; bilateral
reasoning and problem solving. These obtained
coordination of the body, includes the tasks of
results coincide with some previous research (M. V.
coordination of the whole body and require the
Stojanović & M. Stojanović,
2006). The highest
involvement of almost all body parts and bilateral
partial influence on intelligence was achieved by the
coordination of upper and lower extremities;
variable for assessing the frequency of movements,
movement performance in a given time interval
which is consistent with previous research by local
includes the tasks (coarse/fine motor skills or tasks
authors (M. V. Stojanović et al., 2006), who also
that involve object control) where the time needed
concluded that in preschool children intelligence has
by the child to perform a number of movements is
the greatest impact on the movements frequency
essential, and these tasks are often divided into
(hand tapping), because it is the ability that is under
repetitive movements and sequencing movements.
the direct influence of the mechanism for the
Repetitive movements are simple movements that
synergistic regulation and regulation of tone. In
are repeated as quickly as possible. Sequential
rapid execution of individual movements the
movements include alternating patterns of complex
mechanism of regulation of tone, whose main
movements executed as quickly as possible.
function is the activation of motor units, has a
However, balance, strength and agility are less
special role. In addition, the centers located in
associated with cognitive abilities. This can be
subcortical areas include regulatory mechanisms of
explained by the fact that the first group of motor
different degree of excitation depending on the load,
skills (fine motor skills, bilateral coordination of the
during the performance of the movement (special
body and movement performance in a given time
importance is given to the function of the reticular
interval) requires a higher level of cognitive
formation in the facilitation effect to the cerebrum
demand. Motor skills that show a higher correlation
cortex areas). This assertion is confirmed by
with cognitive abilities can be interpreted as
research by Jakšić, Kolar, & Cvetković (2007) who
complex motor skills and they require cognitive
have obtained results confirming the influence of the
abilities of higher order. Motor tasks that show
intelligence to the motor ability of movement
lower correlation with cognitive abilities require less
frequency (hand tapping) among children aged 5 to
cognitive engagement.
6.5 years.
Children of higher intellectual capacity are better
The results obtained in this study do not coincide
and more effective in solving motor problems and
with the results from the most of the previous
tasks set before them, especially if they are under
studies. This fact can be attributed to the specifics of
significant influence of the mechanism for
both the sample of respondents and measuring
movement structuring and mechanisms for
instruments themselves. The results of study
regulation of excitation intensity
(Fratrić et al.,
(Colquitt et al., 2011) indicate that other indicators
2012). Without the mutual effect of motor and
of physical fitness may predict academic
cognitive abilities it is hard to imagine most human
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 9-14
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
Expert model of the most important methodical exercises for fast
skiing turns teaching
Danijela Kuna1• Sanjin Dzajic2• Marko Mastelic1
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access
basic characteristics of effective lessons. This
The purpose of this research was to establish the
research is a foundation for future modeling which
expert model of learning and evaluation the most
has made a selection of significant errors and
important methodical exercises for teaching short
exercises for their elimination, and their hierarchical
skiing turns in advanced skiing school. Participants
were 20 skiing experts from different states. After
the experts model was established, experts selected 5
Keywords expert model ski demonstrators short
most important methodical exercises for teaching
skiing turns
short skiing turns. According to with the goal of the
research, total frequency sum of expert choice of the
most important methodical exercises has been used
(O-observed; E-expected), while the difference
between frequencies of expert evaluation has been
The instruction of alpine skiers is a complex process
tested by non-parametric Chi-square test
(χ²) and
conditioned by numerous endogenous and
statistic meaning of differences
(p). By natural
exogenous factors. Firstly, it depends on the specific
selection, the ranking was made, and selection of the
mountain conditions in which it is performed, level
most important methodical exercises for teaching
foreknowledge, motivation and
short skiing turns. After data processing, statistical
anthropological status of the subjects. In addition, it
differences were significant in frequencies in which
depends on the quality and the nature of the used
experts choose most important methodical exercises
skiing equipment, but mostly on the level of skiing
(c2=17.30; p=0.14) while the differences between
education, experience and way of teaching used by
the values of most important methodical exercises
skiing experts. Learning and performing specific
were not established (c2=2.15; p=0.91). Statistical
skiing knowledge is a complex process that depends
differences based on nationality were not
on the variable conditions of social environment. It
established. Based on the obtained results it can be
can be defined as the process of systematic adoption
concluded that the experts in spite of the structural
and perfection of specific structure of dynamic
differences and specificity within each ski schools
movement, with the aim of efficient performance in
are equally recognized and valued those most
various conditions and types of ski slopes. All the
important methodical exercises who contain the
mentioned factors are the result of specific divisions
and formations of different skiing school program
models (Feinberg-Densmore, 2000; N. Jurković &
D. Jurković,
2005; John,
2006; Murovec,
Lešnik & Žvan,
2010). The skiing school
programme enables and accelerates the process of
University of Split, Faculty of Kinesiology, Croatia
acquiring skiing knowledge. The basis of the
programme facilitates the adoption of various
High school Konjic, Konjic, Bosnia and
techniques of alpine skiing, and secures the gradual
progress of skiing learning. In relation to the
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
mentioned and with the aim of rational performance
The experts performed the multiple extraction of
and lower energy consumption, the skiing elements
methodological exercises variables, in coordination
and methodological exercises should succeed one
with the author of the research, via e-mail. After
another in a logical methodological order. Good
defining and acquiring all the propositions of basic
skiers have high level of specific skiing knowledge,
methodological exercises for fast skiing turns
what is recognised as the ability of successfully
teaching, the expert model of fast skiing turns
performing characteristic skiing elements, as well as
teaching was formed. After that, the task of
conquering different kinds of snow terrains. Thus,
examiners was to choose
5 most important
they require lower levels of energy in order to
methodological exercises for fast skiing turns
perform any of these elements than skiers of lower
teaching, forming an expert model of the most
knowledge level. High quality and professional help
important methodological exercises for fast skiing
of teachers or trainers is the key factor in the process
turns teaching.
of acquiring and perfecting skiing knowledge. In
The sample of variables for fast skiing turns
order to secure adequate teaching, skiing teacher or
teaching consisted of 13 exercises (N=13): OTFT
trainer should have a high level of skiing knowledge
(one turn), PTHFST (parallel turn from hill into fast
and skills, and also understand methodologic and
ski turn), FSTSD (fast ski turn in downhill slope),
didactic principles of training process and the basis
HOHFT (hands on hips), HOTFT (hands on thighs),
of psychological approach of working with people.
AIFT (antenna imitation), ESPFT
(extended ski
Since human being is the subject, there is a great
poles), SPBB
(ski poles behind back), SSPAT
diversity among potential students, regarding the
(switching ski poles around trunk), FTUSB (fast ski
level and degree of anthropological abilities and
turns with unlaced ski boots), SBPUS (stabs of both
characteristics they possess. Therefore, it is very
ski poles under skis), IFTSB (imitation of fast ski
important that skiing experts know and understand
turns in ski boots), FTWJ (fast ski turns with jumps).
the dynamics of learning process of motor, that is,
skiing knowledge, and that they apply the adequate
With the aim of forming the expert model of the
teaching methods. Based on the research results
most important methodological exercises for fast
(Kuna, 2012) that formed the expert model of the
skiing turns teaching, and the testing of the
most important skiing elements of the advanced
difference between the frequencies of expert choice,
skiing school programme, among which fast skiing
the following values were calculated: observed
turns was present, an idea of forming the
- total sum of expert choice
methodological procedures of their teaching
amount frequency, expected frequencies (EF), non-
occurred. In relation to the mentioned, the following
parametric Hi
- square test
(χ2), and the
research aims were set: a) forming the expert model
corresponding empirical level of significance
of the most important methodical exercises for fast
With the aim of determining the hierarchical
skiing turns teaching, b) determining the difference
classification of the most important methodological
among skiing experts of different degree of skiing
exercises for fast skiing turns teaching, the following
vales were calculated: range sum (ΣR) of variable
range, Kruskal-Wallis test
(H-test), and the
corresponding empirical level of significance (p).
Elite skiing experts participated in the formation of
the expert model of the most important
methodological exercises for fast skiing turns. They
Based on the obtained values of testing the statistical
were the representatives of Slovenian, Croatian and
significance of differences between the frequencies
Bosnian-Herzegovinian skiing assistants, members
of expert choice of 5 most important methodological
of assistant teams with years-long skiing experience,
exercises for fast skiing turns teaching (c2=17.29;
education and experience in the work with the
p=0.14), it was observed that there was no
Alpine skiers of different levels of skiing
statistically significant difference between the
foreknowledge. Twenty examinees were included in
frequencies of expert choice of 5 most important
the research, of which 7 Croatian, 7 Slovenian and 6
methodological exercises. In other words, the
Bosnian-Herzegovinian state skiing assistants.
formed model of methodological model for fast ski
turns teaching included those exercises with specific
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
importance and contribution to the teaching alpine
important methodological exercises for fast skiing
skiers, not singling them out on the statistically
turns teaching was formed based on the sum of the
significant level. Model consisting of
5 most total frequency of expert choice.
Table 1. Frequencies of expert choice of 5 most important methodological exercises for fast skiing turns teaching
Methodological exercises of short
skiing turn
χ2= 17.29 p = 0.14
Observed frequencies (OF) - total sum of expert choice amount frequency, expected frequencies (EF), non-parametric Hi -
square test (χ2), and the corresponding empirical level of significance (p)
The FPTHFST (parallel turn from hill into fast
fast turns technique while holding his hands on hips.
ski turn) methodological exercise had the highest
When performing this exercise the skier
level of importance. While performing the exercise
concentrates on the acquisition and harmonisation of
the skier, after performing several parallel turns
characteristic skiing movements that influence the
from the hill, shortens the radius of the turn, and
success of advancing and skis speed control, as well
emphasizes the sideways and axial movement of the
as the harmonious connection between several turns
body with minimal trunk rotation, passing into the
of regular circular shape. The fourth methodological
dynamic skiing technique, performing fast skiing
exercise is the AIFT (antenna imitation) where the
turns. In this way, he gradually adapts to the
skier learns the fast turns technique holding the ski
technical characteristics of the dynamic movement
poles perpendicularly in extension. It is assumed that
structures, characteristic of fast skiing turns. It is
this exercise helps the skier to easily restore the still
assumed that the gradation of acquiring and
upper part of the body, in perpendicular
mastering main characteristics of the fast turns
positionregarding the line of movement. Because of
technique enabled by this methodological exercise
the outstretched arms, the skier achieves and
were the main reason for classifying this exercise
maintains the central position on the skis more
within the model of the most important. The second
easily, developing a sense of regular skis pressure
methodological exercise in this model is the FSTSD
control and coordination of skiing movement, by
(fast ski turns in sloping downhill), where the skier
passing from one turn to another. The fifth
performs fast turns in the slantwise direction
methodological exercise within the expert model of
downhill. This exercise is important because while
the most important ones is the FTWJ (fast turns with
performing fast turns in the slantwise direction
jumps), where the skier, passing from one turn to
downhill, the skier learns how to adjust regular
another, performs a jump. The vertical, circular and
diameters of turns, in relation to the slope degree.
sideways knee movements in turns are especially
Besides this, the performance of one turn in relation
important for their efficient performance. In
to the other is facilitated, due to the slope degree,
comparison with the remaining methodological
enabling better movement speed control and
exercises defined according to the expert model,
developing sense of rhythm and coordination. The
FTWJ is the most complex exercise regarding the
third most important methodological exercise is
coordination, and therefore the skiing teachers
HOHFT (hands on hips), where the skier learns the
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
should know how to apply it in concordance with the
exist in the actual programmes of Croatian,
possibilities and abilities of the athlete they train.
Slovenian and Bosnian-Herzegovinian school and
the methods of fast turns teaching, the statistically
Inspection of the Hi square test values and the
significant differences in the choice of most
statistical significance indicators (Table 2) showed
important methodological exercises were not
no difference among experts, regarding the
nationality. In spite of structural difference that do
Table 2. Differences in the choice of most important methodological exercises for teaching fast skiing turns
exercises of short skiing
Observed corrected frequency of Croatian experts (CRO), observed corrected frequency of Slovenian experts (SLO),
observed corrected frequency of Bosnian experts (BIH), non-parametric Hi - square test (χ2), and the corresponding empirical
level of significance (p)
Based on this, it can be claimed that the expert
group that can be characterised as homogeneous,
disregarding the differences between skiing schools
they represent, formed the expert model of the most
Based on the acquaintance with the basic
important methodological exercises for fast turns
characteristics of motor learning, great practical and
training. By forming the expert model of
methodological knowledge while working with
methodological exercises for teaching fast turns, and
skiers of different skiing knowledge,
20 elite
by selecting the most important ones, we contribute
Croatian, Slovenian and Bosnian-Herzegovinian
to the better understanding of relations and defining
skiing experts first defined, and then evaluated the 5
basic methodological procedures in the alpine skiers
most important methodological exercises that
teaching process. The results obtained in this
facilitate the acquisition of fast turns technique.
research open up a possibility of conducting future
Based on the determined statistically significant
research that could define the characteristic errors
differences between the frequencies of expert
and the most efficient exercises for their correction,
evaluation of the most important methodological
in the process of fast turns acquisition. In addition, a
exercises in teaching fast turns, the model of
need for constructing measuring instruments
exercises that was distinguished by their importance
occured, instruments that could enable higher
and applicative value was identified. In spite of the
selection quality, and the choice of training modality
structural differences and specificities of skiing
and training exercises in the process of educating
schools that skiing experts represent, the differences
alpine skiers of different ages and levels of skiing
between them were not determined.
It can be concluded that the examinees formed a
homogeneous group in defining the dynamics and
fast turns teaching process. The values of this paper
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 15-19
are the new and original research approach, which
Europapress holding i Ferbos inženjering.
secured crucial information on the systematic mode
Kuna, D. (2012). Formiranje ekspertnog modela likova
osnovne i napredne škole skijanja.
[In Croatian]
of acquiring specific skiing knowledge. The
Expert model of learning and valuation the most
information regarding the methodological laws on
important skiing skills of basic and advanced skiing
organising the fast ski turns process obtained
school. Proceedings Of The
3rd International
through experiments are extremely important for the
Conference Contemporary Kinesiology. Đ. Miletić et
kinesiological practice of alpine skiing. This
al. (Eds). Split : Faculty Of Kinesiology University Of
research opens the routs towards the future research
Split, Croatia. 145-153.
that could detect characteristic errors, exercises for
Kuna, D. (2013). Ekspertni model usvajanja skijaških
their correction and conduct empirical tests of the
znanja. [In Croatian] Expert model of gaining skiing
formed model on different samples of examinees.
(Doctoral dissertation). Split: Faculty Of
Kinesiology University Of Split, Croatia.
Lešnik, B., & Žvan, M. (2010). A turn to move on -
Alpine skiing
- Slovenian way, Theory and
methodology of alpine skiing. SZS
- Združenje
učiteljev in trenerjev smučanja.
Feinberg, D. L. (2000). Ski faster. Camden, ME: Ragged
Murovec, S.
(2006). Na kanto: UPS
- učenje s
Mountain Press.
podaljševanjem smuči. [In Slovenian] The edge: OPS
Fry, J. (2006). The story of modern skiing. United States
- learning by extending the ski. Kranj: Format
of America. Published by University Press of New
Puškarić, D. (2010). Istina o skijanju. [In Croatian] The
England one Court Street Lebanon.
truth about skiing. Ogulin: Infostudio d.o.o.
Jurković, N., & Jurković, D.
(2005). Skiing: The
technique, methodology and training. Zagreb:
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2)
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
Physiological responses during arm and leg aerobic power tests in elite
female judokas
Tatjana Trivic1• Cristina Casals2 • Patrik Drid1
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access
and AT, with statistically significant correlations in
The aim of this study was to compare physiological
the arm crank, and close to significance on the
responses during arm and leg aerobic power tests.
treadmill. On the other hand, arm crank and
treadmill tests presented different results concerning
Ten elite female judokas of the Serbian National
aerobic capacity. However, our female judokas
Team participated in the study. In addition to the
interestingly presented similar VO2max results
Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT), maximal oxygen
during both aerobic tests, which highlights some
(VO2max) and anaerobic threshold
judo-specific demands on the upper-body aerobic
were determined using an arm crank ergometer and
a treadmill. Body fat percentage was estimated by
Keywords Arm crank
The VO2max was only 3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1 higher
on the treadmill than in the arm crank (p<0.03), the
AT was also higher on the treadmill test (8.6 l∙min-
1, p=0.005). Nevertheless, the SJFT results were
significantly correlated only with the maximal heart
rate during the treadmill test
(r=0.77, p<0.01 for
Judo has been characterized as a high-intensity
index; r=-0.73, p<0.02 for total throws). Body fat
intermittent combat sport, consisting of many
percentage was correlated with VO2max (r=-0.67,
different techniques and actions employed during a
p<0.05) and AT in the arm crank test
match (Drid et al., 2012). High level of strength and
coordination is needed to overcome the adversary
through rapid execution of technical maneuvers
The maximal oxygen uptake was not statistically
throughout the match (Drid et al., 2010). In addition
correlated with the SJFT results in elite female
to faster recovery process after high-intensity
judokas. However, judokas who had higher maximal
associated to
heart rate during the treadmill test, showed a worse
(Franchini et al.,
2011; Drid et al.,
judo-specific capacity on the SJFT. Female judokas
with higher body fat seem to have lower VO2max
2015), some evidence exists for higher values of
maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in judokas
who are able to win points in the decisive moments
of bout. Furthermore, those judokas were able to re-
synthesis creatine-phosphate fasterin gastrocnemius
muscle compared to judokas who win points earlier
in the match and have better performance on
University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sport and
Wingate test for lower extremities (Gariod et al.,
Physical Education
Department of Physiology, Institute of Food
Nutrition and Technology, Biomedical Research
Drop in aerobic performance of lower extremities
Centre, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of
in judokas prior to main competition has been found
Granada, Granada, Spain
in study of Franchini, Cassio de Moreas Bertuzzi,
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
Takito, & Kiss (2009), in addition to increase in
trial. The test was considered completed when the
aerobic performance of the upper body during the
oxygen uptake reached plateau and the respiratory
same period. Authors concluded that the
and ventilator quotients reached reference values.
performance of the upper body is more important
The gas analyzer was calibrated after five athletes
than performance for the lower part of the body, and
completed tests with gas mixture of known oxygen
consequently, the aerobic capacity of the upper body
and CO2 concentrations (20.9% O2, 0.03% CO2 and
was more relevant than the same test for lower body.
16.0% O2, 5.0% CO2, respectively).
Furthermore, Jagelo, Wolska, & Smulski
Second VO2max was estimated by a method of
analyzed correlation between International Physical
extrapolation after a standardized sub maximal test
Fitness Test (IPFT) and Special Judo Fitness Test
on the arm cycle ergometer (Monark, Sweden) along
(SJFT) for three groups of female judokas. Highly
with telemetric monitoring of heart function (Polar,
skilled judokas were characterized by distinct and
Finland) after a five day period.
more diverse direct relationship between indicators
of general and specific physical preparation
Specific Judo Performance was assessed through
compared to judokas 13 - 15 and 16 - 18 year olds.
SJFT test. SJFT is divided into three active periods
Other research, conducted on Brazilian Olympic
(A=15 s; B and C=30 s) with 10 s rest intervals
judo team
(Franchini et al.,
2005) showed no
between them. During each period, athlete that is
significant differences in aerobic power between
being evaluated (tori) throws two partners (uke A
first team and reserves. On the other hand, Drid et
and uke B; separated from each other by a distance
2009 found significant differences between
of 6 m) as many times as possible using the one-arm
judokas of A and B Serbian national team.
shoulder throw
(ippon-seoi-nage) technique. All
participants (tori, uke A, and uke B) involved with
The aim of this study was to compare
the test should possess similar height and weight
physiological responses during arm and leg aerobic
characteristics. Immediately following, and one
power tests in elite female judokas and correlation
minute after completion of the three active periods,
between oxygen uptake and the special judo fitness
the tested subject’s heart rate is measured
test in female judokas.
(Sterkowicz, 1995). Afterwards, subsequent analysis
in the number of throws completed during the active
periods, along with heart rate response to the active
periods, and an index calculation was conducted.
The SJFT Index was calculated as follows:
Index = (Final HR + HR1 min) / Throws (1)
Ten elite female judokas of the Serbian National
Where: Final HR
= heart rate registered
Team participated in the study.
immediately after the test, HR1 min = heart rate
1 minute after the test, and Throws
number of throws completed during the test.
Anthropometric Profile was assessed in all
participants through body mass (Model 3306 ABV;
Statistical Analyses
Avery Ltd., Crosswell, United Kingdom) and body
Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation.
(Holtain Ltd., London, United Kingdom),
The Shapiro-Wilks statistic was used for checking
whereas body fat percentage was estimated through
the normality of distribution. The Pearson or
manual bioimpedance
Spearman correlation tests were applied where
Edinburgh, United Kingdom).
appropriate. Comparisons between treadmill and
Aerobic Profile was estimated through treadmill
arm ergometry were performed using the Wilcoxon
and an arm crank ergometer test, with maximal
test. The data were analyzed using the statistical
oxygen uptake (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold
package SPSS, PC program, version 20.0 (IBM Inc.,
(AT) determined. For treadmill test, ventilatory and
metabolic indices were measured at rest for 1 minute
and then for another minute at a 5 km.h-1speed;
afterwards workload incremented progressively
starting at 7 km.h-1at a rate of 0.5 km.h-1 every 30
seconds until exhaustion (CPET, COSMED, Rome,
Physical characteristics and the Special Judo fitness
Italy) with constant 2% inclination throughout the
test results are presented in table 1.
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
Table 1. Physical characteristics and Special Judo Fitness Test
Body fat percentage was correlated with VO2max
results in elite female judokas
(r= -0.67, p<0.05) and AT in the arm crank test (r=
0.88, p=0.001).
Weight (kg)
Height (cm)
Body Fat (%)
Total number of throws
Final HR (bpm)
HR 1 min after (bpm)
Body Fat (%)
Comparison between results obtained on arm
crank and treadmill test are presented in Table 2.
Figure 3. Correlation between VO2max and % of body fat
The VO2max was higher on the treadmill than in the
arm crank (p<0.03), the AnT was also higher on the
treadmill test (p=0.005).
Table 2. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2max) and
anaerobic threshold (AnT) in different ergometry tests
Arm crank Treadmill
HR max (bpm)*
Body Fat (%)
VO2max (ml∙kg-1∙min-1)*
AnT (l∙min-1)*
Figure 4. Correlation between arm crank AnT and % of body
* means p<0.05
The SJFT results were significantly correlated
only with the maximal heart rate during the treadmill
(r=0.77, p
<0.01 for index, Fig
1; r=-0.73,
p<0.02 for total throws, Fig 2).
Higher values for all observed variables were
obtained on treadmill compared to arm crank,
suggesting a higher cardiovascular stress during
treadmill test. These results are understandable when
observing larger muscle groups involved in running
on treadmill compared to arm crank test involving
only upper body muscles.
ObtainedVO2max and AnT, on both arm crank
SJFT index
ergometer and treadmill, were not statistically
correlated with the SJFT results in elite female
Figure 1. Correlation between HRmax and SJFT index
judokas. This is not in line with previous researches
(Franchini et al., 2005; Franchini et al., 2007) that
showed correlations of the aerobic fitness and the
SJFT in male judokas. This could imply a need for
additional investigation for substantial conclusions.
According to the results of the present study,
VO2max and AnT results do not seems to represent
useful assessment tool in determining the specific
Total number of throws during the SJFT
performance of female judokas. Almansba et al.
Figure 2. Correlation between HRmax and SJFT total number of
(2010) obtained similar results in male judokas, and
noted that VO2max is highly sensitive to changes in
training loads.
Body fat percentage was correlated with
VO2max and AT in the arm crank test (Fig 3-4).
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 21-24
Female judokas who had higher maximal HR
during the treadmill test, showed a worse judo-
specific capacity on the SJFT, indicating a lower
Almansba, R., Stanislaw, S., Belkacem, R., Sterkowicz-
aerobic fitness. In addition, judokas with higher
& Mahdad, D.
body fat had significantly lower VO2max and AnT
Anthropometrical and physiological profiles of the
in the arm crank, and close to significance level on
Algerian Olympic judoists. Archives of Budo, 6, 185-
the treadmill (p=0.06, p=0.08, respectively). These
results are in accordance with other study in male
Drid, P., Maksimović, R., Matić, R., Obradović, B.,
Milošević, Z., & Ostojić, S.M. (2009). Fitness profiles
judokas (Franchini et al., 2007) that showed lower
of elite female judokas of the Serbian national team.
performance in body displacement activities with
Med Sport, 62(3), 251-263.
judokas with higher body fat percent.
Drid, P, Bala, G, & Obadov, S. (2010). The differences in
motor and cognitive abilities between the more and
less successful 12-14 years old judokas. Arch Budo, 6,
Drid, P., Trivić, T., & Tabakov, S. (2012). Special judo
fitness test-a review. Serbian Journal of Sports
Arm crank and treadmill tests presented different
Sciences, 6(4).
results in the anaerobic capacity of female judokas.
Drid, P., Casals, C., Mekic, A., Radjo, I., Stojanovic, M.,
In addition, the same judokas interestingly presented
& Ostojic, S.M. (2015). Fitness and anthropometric
similar VO2max results during both aerobic tests,
profiles of international vs. National judo medallists in
which highlights some judo-specific demands on the
half-heavyweight category. Journal of Strength and
upper-body aerobic fitness. However, VO2max and
Conditioning Research, 29(8), 2115-2121.
AnT do not seem to represent useful assessment tool
Franchini, E., Takito, MY., Kiss MAPDM et al. (2005).
in determining the specific performance of female
Physical fitness and anthropometrical differences
judokas. Higher values for all observed variables
between elite and non-elite judo players. Biol Sport,
were obtained on treadmill compared to arm crank,
22, 315-328.
Franchini, E., Nunes, AV., Morales JM., et al. (2007).
suggesting a higher cardiovascular stress during
Physical fitness and anthropometrical profile of the
treadmill test. These results are understandable when
Brazilian male judo team. J PhysiolAnthropol, 26, 59-
observing larger muscle groups involved in running
on treadmill compared to arm crank test involving
Franchini, E., Cassio de Moreas Bertuzzi, R., Takito,
only upper body muscles.
M.Y., & Kiss, M. A. (2009). Effects of recovery type
after a judo match on blood lactate and performance in
specific and non-specific judo tasks. European
Journal of Applied Physiology, 107(4), 377-383.
Franchini, E., Vecchio, F.B., Matsushigue, K.A., &
Guilherme, A.G. (2011). Physiological profiles of elite
This work was supported by the Provincial
judo athletes. Sports Med, 41(2), 147-166.
Science and Technological
Gariod, L., Favre-Juvin, A., Novel, V., et al.
(grant number
Evaluation du profit energetique des judokas par
-01), and the Faculty of Sport and Physical
spectroscopie RMN du P31. Sci Sports, 10(4), 201-
Education, University of Novi Sad (2016 Annual
Jagiello, W., Wolska, B., & Smulski, W. (2009). Physical
preparation of female judo competitors at selected
stages of long-standing sports training. Archives of
Budo, 5, 47-53.
sprawnościruchowej w judo. Antropomotoryka,
29-44. [in Polish]
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 25-28
Sources of stress as predictors of partner relationship quality
Zeljka Bojanic1• Natasa Ninic1
© The Author(s) 2016. This article is published with open access
and multiple and they are referred to as stressors.
The purpose of this survey is to establish whether,
They could be individual and concern the inner state
and in which manner, different sources of stress
of individuals and the way they experience different
predict the partner relationship quality, as well as to
changes in life, demands from their environment;
establish differences concerning the gender, age and
interpersonal, concerning different interpersonal
job of respondents. Sources of stress are defined as
relations; and organizational (incompatibility of the
individual, interpersonal and organizational, whereas
job contents, working hours, poor physical
the quality of partner relationship was tested as a
conditions in the work environment). At the present
degree of satisfaction with the romantic relationship.
time, stress has become an inevitable problem and,
The survey was conducted on an adequate sample of
in order to mitigate the effects of stress, we must
100 respondents involved in a partner relationship,
examine how and which aspects of a person’s life it
similar in terms of gender and aged
18 to
affects. One of the significant aspects is having a
Questionnaires were used to measure the sources of
partner relationship. Zotovic (2002) emphasizes that
stress and partner relationship quality
stress is a threat to life, but also a threat to other
1988). The results indicated that all three sources of
persons that matter to us, to ourselves and the
stress were significantly connected with the partner
emotional relations we create. However, how partner
relationship quality, also that family-related sources
relationship is affected by stress circumstances
of stress were the only significant predictor (β= -
outside the relationship has been significantly less
0.286, p<0.01). The greater the family-related
studied. In this respect, the main issue arising from
sources of stress, the poorer the partnership relation
this survey concerns the question whether and in
quality. Differences were obtained in assessing the
which manner the stressors from different aspects of
individual factors of stress according to gender and
life predict and determine the satisfaction with and
age categories.
quality of the partner relationship?
Definition of Stress
Keywords Partner relationship quality Sources of
stress Gender Age
There are a number of different definitions of stress,
with respect to its causes, characteristics, sources
and consequences, viewed from the perspective of
different scientific disciplines. Authors Steinberger
and Cizmic (1991) consider these definitions and
indicate that stress reflects the pressures from the
Stress is a negative life experience accompanied by
environment, causing an emotional tension and
physiological, cognitive, emotional and behavioral
anxiety, while according to other authors, this
changes. The factors causing stress are numerous
emotional tension is the essence of stress, while
pressures from the environment are stressors, or
agents of stress. Any agent that disturbs the balance
of an organism, or its mental, physical and social
integrity, may cause a stress. These agents are
referred to sources of stress, i.e. stressors (Kalicanin
Faculty of Legal and Business Studies “Dr Lazar
et al., 2011).
Vrkatic”, Novi Sad
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 25-28
There are many sources of stress and they are
various stressors, with reference to age and gender
classified into several groups:
of the respondents.
1) Personal (types of personality, life changes,
demographic characteristics),
2) Interpersonal
3) Organisational
(incompatibility of the job
contents, working hours, poor physical
The survey sample is adequate, comprising
conditions in the work environment)
respondents, both male and female, above the age of
18, who were either married or in a relationship.
Partner relationship quality
Partner relationship quality may be defined as an
The three groups of stress sources were measured by
objectively existing set of desirable characteristics,
the Stress Sources Questionnaire
such as the feeling of mutual love and respect, equal
Skills for Business, 2007).
division of responsibilities and duties, joint decision-
In assessing the degree of the partner relationship
making, agreeing on important issues in life. Close
quality, we used the Relationship Assessment Scale
partner relationship is a form in which most people
(Hendrick, 1988).
spend their lifetime. Therefore, it is very important
to understand the factors connected with the quality
of our partner relationship. Stress certainly is a
significant factor, which is a threat to the partner
relationship on the one hand, while on the other
hand, the quality partner relationship may be
To respond to the main goal of this survey, Table 1
efficient in the reduction of stress.
presents the results of the Pearson Correlation of the
quality of romantic relationships in three groups of
Assessment of the high quality of intimate
stress sources. As noted, all three sources of stress are
relations makes a person feel protected and loved,
negatively and statistically significantly correlated with
emotionally and socially supported, which results in
the partner relationship quality. The relationship
perceiving the problems as less threatening (Batinic
quality shares the largest percentage of variation with
& Vukosavljevic-Gvozden, 2008).
the personal and family-related source of stress (r=-
For this reason, the main purpose of this survey is
0.286, p<0.01), then the individual (r=-0.241, p<0.05)
to analyze the nature of interconnection between the
and significantly less with the organizational source
three sources of stress, individual, interpersonal and
(r=-0.266, p<0.05). This indicates that the less present
organizational and satisfaction in a romantic
the stressors from all three groups, the better assessed
relationship, as well as to determine differences in
the partner relationship quality.
the quality of partner relationships and frequency of
Table 1. Results of the correlation analysis
Sources of stress
Personal and family-related Organisational
Partner relationship quality
A multiple regression analysis was conducted to
relationship quality was used as a criterion, while
establish that all three sources of stress provide an
three predictors were the three sources of stress. The
incremental contribution to predicting the partner
stepwise regression analysis method was used. The
relationship quality. The variable of partner
results were presented in Table 2 and Table 3.
Table 2. Multiple Correlation Coefficient and Determination Coefficient
Corrected R2
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 25-28
Table 3. Standardized Beta Coefficient
Personal and family-related sources
are the main agents of satisfaction with a romantic
relationship, because this relationship also belongs
to personal and family-related aspects of life.
The main issue in this survey was to examine the
nature of connection of stress, caused by different
Differences with regard to gender were obtained
agents outside a partner relationship and to assess its
only in cases of assessing the individual agents’
quality. It seems that surveys most often focus on
effects on stress, where women achieved
establishing the agents of satisfaction or
significantly higher score on the scale. These results
dissatisfaction with a romantic relationship that
could perhaps be explained by the fact that there are
concerned the agents alone, such as quarrels,
cultural differences in the role of men and women in
infidelity and so on. Consequently, two main goals
a society. Consequently, it seems to be more
were set in this survey.
acceptable that “women tend to be weaker” and the
main source of their own stress. In other words,
When it comes to the first goal, the results
women are more inclined to introspection, which
indicated that individual, personal and family-
makes them more vulnerable towards a wide range
related, as well as organizational sources of stress
of stressors. As far as the assessment of the partner
were significantly connected with the assessment of
relationship quality is concerned, no differences
quality of romantic relationships. In other words,
were obtained with reference to gender.
those who think they encounter a number of
stressors, regardless of their source, will be less
In assessing the individual sources of stress,
satisfied with their partner relationship. This may
differences were obtained with reference to age
indicate that, when an individual is under stress, this
groups as well. In fact, younger respondents
will reflect on different aspects of their life, and at
assessed that their traits were often the source of
that particular moment the origin of that stress is
stress, in a much greater extent than with the older
irrelevant. In this respect, for instance, negative
respondents. It is possible that it is so because of the
things experienced by an individual at work will be
higher emotional instability of young people, along
transferred to their private life, because the state of
with significant changes and challenges of their age,
stress, no matter what its source is, will reduce the
so they tend to reconsider things more, what makes
capacity and willingness of the individual to engage
them realize that they alone are the source of their
in a positive, efficient and functional partner
Considering the fact that differences with
Nevertheless, the regression analysis indicated
reference to gender and age were obtained in
that the partner relationship quality is most closely
assessing the individual source of stress, it turned
connected with the personal and family-related
out that once the variability of these two grouping
source of stress and that individual and
variables is eliminated, the connection with the
organizational factors do not provide any novel
assessment of the partner relationship quality
explanation. This means that what is common to
disappears. This indicates that the connection
individual and organizational sources of stress and
probably exists only in a subsample of women and
the partner relationship quality is also common to
young people, if we monitor the connection
the assessment of personal and family-related
direction between the two variables, as well as the
stressors. It may be assumed that a certain
fact that these two categories have a higher score in
predisposition determines whether some individuals
the assessment of individual stressors’ effects. In
will simply perceive their environment as more
other words, it is possible that individual stressors
2016; Rauthman, Sherman, &
influence the quality of partner relationship,
2015) or, when exposed to the intense
although to a greater extent among women and
effects of a concrete stressor, any situation will seem
young people.
to be stressful to them. In any case, it is reasonable
that stressors arising from personal and family life
EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2): 25-28
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2)
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consult with the editor.
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2)
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Cameron, N. (2004). Physical activity and sedentary
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EQOL Journal (2016) 8(2)
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“Exercise and Quality of Life” Journal,
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Faculty of Sport and Physical Education,
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CIP - Каталогизација у публикацији
Библиотека Матице српске, Нови Сад
EXERCISE and quality of life : EQOL : journal of science in sport / editor-in-chief
Milena Mikalački. - Vol. 1, issue 1 (dec. 2009)- . - Novi Sad : Faculty of Sport and Physical
Education University of Novi Sad, 2009- . - 30 cm
Dostupno i na: - Dva puta godišnje. - Glavni urednici: od 2010. Višnja
Đorđić; od 2016. Damjan Jakšić. - Štamparija od br. 1 (2010) Old Commerce, Novi Sad. -
Drugo izdanje na drugom medijumu: Exercise and quality of life (Online) = ISSN 2406-1379
ISSN 1821-3480 = Exercise and quality of life
COBISS.SR-ID 245004551